Monday, September 28, 2015

Sexual Diseases in Men and Women

Dr Vinod Raina is an well-known sexologist in Delhi, India He has treated more than 110000 patients from last 14 years of clinical Practice in sexology, he knows how to treat people from severe sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction,early ejaculation and male infertility. Dr Vinod Raina has been awarded as best sexologist in Delhi in year 2012,2013,2104 and more over he has been given award of Dr B R Ambadekar Sewa Ratna Award 2012 for best sexologist in Delhi. Dr Vinod Raina is often called by number of T V channels for interviews live on air, he is regular to India news, news nation,samachar plus, news express, sadna news, journalist in action and focus tv.

Infertility in Males by Dr Vinod Raina

About 10 percent of couples of reproductive age in the United States will have difficulty conceiving. Approximately 30 percent of cases are due to problems in man, another 30 percent to problems in women and the remainder is unexplained causes or multiple factors involving both partners.
If you had sex regularly and without using any birth control for over a year (or six months if you're over 35) without conceiving, see your doctor. Almost 90 percent of couples with infertility problems can successfully undergo fertility treatment.

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

Educational Intervention on Healthy Eating

Food is a process essential and mandatory for all organizations or systems living and this has to occur according to the requirements of the living being in question. 
Proper nutrition is the result of balance between the needs of the organism and nutrient intake, any imbalance can lead to deficiencies syndromes, toxicity or obesity , been known as malnutrition.Protein energy malnutrition, the state abnormal nonspecific systemic and potentially reversible, which originates as a result of poor utilization of essential nutrients by the body's cells.

Some authors suggest that malnutrition itself includes under nutrition in which the nutrients are given sparingly and over-nutrition where the nutrients are supplied in excess. 

When an imbalance not match the needs and contributions of nutrients and energy to the body it is established; preventing performing these functions is guaranteed optimally, it is said that a state of malnutrition. Faulty nutrition leading to a disruption of health and hence a decrease of physical capacities - intellectual or both and quantitative easing - qualitative life of man ; or that has important social implications of economic, political and Malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency because the system does not work properly if immune nutrition is not evacuated. The immune system dysfunction secondary to malnutrition known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Nutrition (SIDAN) and affects millions of people worldwide below 5 years and malnutrition is the common denominator in most of these.

During childhood proper nutrition is very important for any malnutrition by excess or defect can have significant impact in the short or long term. It is also during childhood when it begins to set in the correct eating habits or not, they will remain throughout life. 
The nutritional needs of the first year of life are varied over the months, these needs are not only in quantity but also in quality nutritious, because the child at this stage is when it grows; it's dominated events anabolic. A poorly nourished child may suffer from deficiencies of iron , folic acid, vitamin C, zinc, copper and vitamin A. 

Several authors state that under nutrition can result from inadequate intake, absorption, abnormal systemic loss of nutrients due to diarrhea , bleeding, kidney failure or excessive sweating infection, among other causes and malnutrition is associated with poverty ; They have been identified factors of risk related nutrition in young children with parents, with overcrowding and the environment in general, as well as others associated with sociocultural factors greatly influence the nutritional status. 

More than 815 million people suffer from hunger and chronic malnutrition and 36 million die every year of hunger, also it states that every 7 seconds a child dies less than two years for this cause. 

One of the effects caused by prolonged malnutrition diseases infectious so properly feeding all the world's children a million deaths would be avoided annually from pneumonia, malaria and 800 000 250 000 measles.

Haiti is considered the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. Indicators of Health show that 80% of the population survive on less than $ 1.00 a day, the infant mortality rate is 80 per 1,000 live births, and life expectancy not exceeds 51 years old.

According to UNICEF, nearly a third of infants suffering from chronic malnutrition and 17% of acute malnutrition and one in 5 babies had low birth weight due to poor nutrition of the mothers themselves in that country.

Cuba has a health policy designed according to the social protection of the population as a premise in addressing the problems of the health - disease from the comprehensive transformation of communities and promoting social support systems provided careful attention to groups vulnerable population. 

In several municipality in the province, they have been conducted with the issue of breastfeeding mother but still the issue has many sides to be analyzed. 
About 2 years ago, a study was conducted Programme National Food (PNA) ( Project No. 15) in the five eastern provinces to determine the incidence of anemia. Included this study, a survey food, the results indicated that there was a high incidence of children with anemia and eating habits did not match the quality and quantity of necessary nutrients.

Problem : The human being of today, immersed in the fast pace of everyday life, has made ??major changes in their eating patterns and schemes, from consumption increasingly widespread food and pre-prepared fast food over the nature It makes available, aside from feeding healthy ways to ensure the necessary nutrients to keep the body strong and healthy. Why you need a feed Sana.?

In correspondence with this problem, the objective CTS will be directed to: reflect on about the importance and social significance that has strengthen health promotion on healthy eating through an educational intervention to help improve the quality of life . And will increase the knowledge on this subject.

Nutrition is the set of processes by which physiological ingested food are transformed and assimilated, that is, joining the body of living beings .
It is a science that aims to study the relationship between food and the living. . In addition to devote to the study of food quality.
For human nutrition studies are directed to meet the needs of nutrients that man and diseases that are caused by insufficient or excessive intake, proper nutrition is a key factor for the strength and performance of a person 
Eating is not just a pleasure, it is primarily meet the nutritional needs for proper growth and development of intellectual and physical abilities. There are diseases that can be prevented or improved by an appropriate diet.
At corresponds nurses help develop and maintain eating habits and guiding influence how inadequate nutrition in the loss of health. 
A good quality of life is achieved with the acquisition of good habits. The body's cells need proper nutrition for normal operation, all systems can be affected when there are nutritional problems. For a person to function at its optimal level should consume adequate amounts of foods that contain nutrients essential to human life.
To live our body needs a certain amount of nutrients found in the food. However, it does not matter what you eat as the proportion of various nutrients varies from one food to another.

Key Features of Nutrients
1. Energy: Provides the body the fuel it needs to produce energy for the body to perform their daily activities: breathing, keep the temperature body, running, among others. This is a primary function carried out the carbohydrates , fats and proteins.
2. Plastic: Build the tissues of the body or replace existing ones; this is a primary function of proteins and some minerals .
3. Regulatory: Regular metabolic processes (set of chemical reactions and processes that take place in cells for the maintenance of the body). Here the proper use of plastic and energy substances are favored; this is a primary function of vitamins and minerals.
4. paraspecific: Related to immunity functions, satiety, appetite.
Proper nutrition is the diet according to recognized expertise in the field , meets the specific needs of different stages of life, promotes children's growth and development and appropriate adult conserves or achieve the expected weight for height and prevents the development of diseases.
Humans, besides the required water is vital that a varied and balanced ingestion of food. The reason is that there is no single food provides all the nutrients to sustain life and health. The basis of good nutrition lies in the balance, variety and moderation in our food. But the urban modern diet is often unbalanced, unstructured and often coupled with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle .
Food is a chain of events beginning with the cultivation, selection and preparation of food to the styles and the consumption of a group of them. There are diseases that can be prevented or improved through healthy eating
A healthy diet is achieved by combining various foods in a balanced way, which meets the nutritional needs for proper growth and develop the physical and intellectual capacities.
The range is given by the selection and inclusion in the diet of all types of food, with priority for vegetables and fruits because it contains carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals.
The vegetables are recommended by the high content of dietary fiber needed for the gastro-intestinal function, value food, pleasant taste and aromatic properties, they are the main suppliers of the necessary for the functioning of the body vitamins, maintain the acid-base balance and contain substances special that eliminate or stop the growth of microorganisms patógenos.1 The Center for Research and Development, Ministry of Commerce Interior Havana, Cuba , in 2002 published a paper in two parts entitled "Only vegetables", very useful for information about the topic. 
In Cuba we have worked hard to make available to the population the amount of vegetables per capita to ensure good salud1 and high yields with low input technologies are developed with intensive methods.
In Cuba is working on the formation of a consciousness of nature in population and food production plans are developed using different alternatives to meet the needs of the population1 on the one hand and on the other, to constitute true sustainable systems. There is great political will to diversify agricultural production with the objective .
It also allows promote and promote healthy lifestyles to maintain health.
Organic food has become a discipline that summarizes important aspects of human endeavor, requiring an integrated vision to achieve a harmonious relationship between the society and the environment and is linked to the principles of the agriculture organic, nutrition and technology food.
Organic food is based on the efficient use of plant diversity as a source of food and natural to maintain health and quality of life consumption.
The establishment of specific nutrients recommended servings helps people to select foods to ensure an adequate supply of essential nutrients in their diets .
The Organization for Agriculture and Food of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO / WHO) have established standards from international goals to improve dietary practices and help solve public health problems related to diet.

2 Healthy eating is achieved with the application or use of the dietary guidelines. 
Food guides are educational tools that adapt scientific knowledge on nutritional requirements and food composition and transforms into a practical tool that facilitates different people choosing a healthy diet and aims to raise short-term knowledge of food and nutrition and long term, remove erroneous feeding behaviors. 
Aspects to be emphasized in teaching about nutrition:
The need for a balanced diet from a nutritional point of view to promote optimal health.
The special needs of children, adolescents , pregnant women and nursing mothers to promote their growth and development.
The need to eat at regular times to encourage the development of good eating habits.
The need to have a good breakfast to start the day to promote adequate intake of essential nutrients.
The need to maintain hygiene in cleaning, preparation and storage of food.

Educating in the art of eating healthy and harmonious requires perseverance and convincing arguments. The staff nurse has a great role to play in the field of nutrition education to achieve in individuals, families and populations healthy eating and provide scientific information to understand the importance of certain prohibitions or reductions and increased certain food, they know that there is a basis in each explanation aimed at the welfare of human beings.
The implementation of an educational program on the topic of Healthy Eating is very significant because through his habits and lifestyles that influence the best modified behavior of the health-disease.

Friday, September 11, 2015

Amla Powerful Rejuvenating Herb

Amla or Gooseberry is perhaps the single most of ten mentioned herbs in Charaka Samhita. The Amla plant is a middle sized tree commonly found in the mixed deciduous forests in India, Srilanka, China and Malaya ascending to 1,500m on the hills.It is often cultivated in gardens and home orchards.

It has reputation as a powerful rejuvenating herb. The fruit is reputed have a high content of vitamin C of any natural occurring substances in nature. Actually, the principal chemical constituent of Amla is vitamin C (650-900 mg/100g). The fruit juice contains about 20 times more vitamin C than orange juice. It also contains tannins (5%), glucose minerals like iron phosphorous and calcium.

A research team discovered that when Amla is taken regularly as a dietary supplement, it counteracts the toxic effects of prolonged exposure to environmental heavy metals such as lead, aluminium and nickel. These metals are prevalent in the environment of industrialized countries.In another research studies, the pro-oxidant or oxygen radical scavenger qualities of amla-suggest that it is also very effective in lowering the risk of may cancers.

Studies indicate that the naturally occurring vitamin C is easlier for the body to absorb than synthetic vitamins and the presence of the tannins presents the oxidation of vitamin. The naturally occurring vitamin C may be ten times beneficial to the body than synthetic vitamins.Other studies show that amla increases red blood count and hemoglobin percentages.
The dried fruit reduces cholesterol levels, indicating that amla is safe to consume on along term basis.

Amla also reduces unwanted fat because it increases total protein levels this is due to its ability to create a positive nitrogen balance and it also significantly reduces cholesterol level cholesterol induced atherosclerosis (obstruction of the arteries), making it a useful natural product to fight obesity.

The Amla fruit has acrid, cooling, refrigerant diuretic and laxative properties. Dried fruit is useful in haemorrhage, diarrhoea diabetes and dysentery. In combination with iron it is used to treat anameia, jaundice and dyspepsia. Fermented liquor prepared from the fruit is used in jaundice, dyspepsia and cough.

Other study shows that it prevented atheroma (degeneration of the artery walls due to fat and scare tissue) further more, amla has exhibited considerable effect in inhibiting the HIV virus which ultimately results in the disease AIDS.

Therefore, one can draw the conclusion that amla is good for almost everyone on a regular basis as it reduces or eliminates the risk of environmental pollutants, normalizes cholesterol, reduces unwanted fat, cures ulcers, reduces or prevents cancer, has the highest content of vitamin C of an natural source, detoxifies the body, regulates digestion, has inhibiting effects against the HIV virus, promotes metabolic function and can produce these results in a dried, natural unprocessed form. The only thing that could possibly be better than amla for a daily herbal supplement is the Triphala formula, of which amla constitutes one third.

Smokers have lower IQ

Cigarette smokers have lower IQs than smoking Non smoking, and the more a person, the lower their IQ will be recruited according to a study of more than 20,000 Israeli military.

Noted Dr. Mark Weiser and colleagues at Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, that young men smoked a pack of cigarettes per day or more had IQ scores 7.5 points lower than in nonsmokers. "Young people with lower IQ scores can be used for programs to prevent smoking to be targeted," they conclude in the journal Addiction.

Although there is evidence of an association between smoking and lower IQ, many studies on intelligence tests given in childhood, abandoned, and also have people with mental and behavioral disorders who smoke, and both tend to have rather low IQ, Weiser and his team found .

For a better understanding of the smoking-IQ relationship, the researchers looked at 2.0211 men who were 18-years-old and recruited into the Israeli military. The group does not contain all with large mental health problems, because these persons are excluded from military service.

According to the researchers, 28 percent of study participants smoked at least one cigarette a day, about three percent said they were ex-smokers, and 68 percent never smoked. The smokers had significantly lower scores of intelligence tests than non-smokers, and this remained true even after researchers concluded for socioeconomic status, how many years of formal education accounted for a recruit's father was measured. The average IQ was about 101 for the Non smoking, while smoking is 94 for men before they had begun the military.

The IQ steadily declined as the number of cigarettes smoked increased from 98 for men, The one to five cigarettes a day for up to 90 for those who smoked more than a pack per day smoked. IQ scores from 84 to 116 are shown as average intelligence.

Monday, September 7, 2015

HIV Medicine protects all participants in new study

A new study following 657 people who took the HIV prevention drug Truvada for 2.5 years has found that 100 percent of them remain HIV-free - even those in high-risk environments. The pill, which has to be taken every day without fail, has been on the market in the US since 2012, and trials are currently underway all over the world, across Africa, Asia, South America, and in several Australian states. 

But despite promising results, researchers are hesitant to overstate the potential of the drug in combating the spread of HIV because of how fast its efficacy falls when a pill is skipped, and the persistent stigma that’s followed its use in the US.

Researchers following over 600 people who took an HIV prevention pill for more than two years have found that 100% of them remained free from the virus even in high-risk environments.

The study conducted at Kaiser Permanente in San Francisco involved more than 600 high-risk individuals, most of whom were men who have sex with men. These individuals were healthy at the time of enrollment and were put on a daily regimen of a blue pill called Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

The study is "the first to extend the understanding of the use of PrEP in a real-world setting and suggests that the treatment may prevent new HIV infections even in a high-risk setting," said lead author Jonathan Volk, a physician and epidemiologist at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Centre.

In the study, 100% of the participants remained HIV-free. Not a single person in the study became infected while on the drug during the study period that included 2.5 years of observation, the Washington Post reported.

No individuals taking preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) were diagnosed with HIV during 388 person-years of follow-up in a study published online September 1 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

The researchers analyzed data from 801 individuals with at least one intake visit in the Kaiser Permanente San Francisco system who had been referred for PrEP evaluation between July 2012 — when the US Food and Drug Administration approved daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada, Gilead) as PrEP — and February 2015.

Of these, 82% (657 individuals; average age, 37 years) began taking PrEP, continuing for an average of 7.2 months. Nearly all were men having sex with men; the exceptions were 3 heterosexual women and 1 transgender man who had sex with men.

Of these, 82% (657 individuals; average age, 37 years) began taking PrEP, continuing for an average of 7.2 months. Nearly all were men having sex with men; the exceptions were 3 heterosexual women and 1 transgender man who had sex with men.

Compared with the 18% who did not initiate PrEP, those who started it were no more likely to have an HIV-infected sex partner (30% PrEP vs 25% non-PrEP; P = .18). However, 84% of PrEP users reported multiple sex partners compared with 69% of those not taking PrEP (P < .001).

More than a third (35%) of those who did not start taking PrEP said they didn't because they had a low risk for HIV. Among other leading reasons for not taking it were concern about the cost (15%), lack of desire to complete the required follow-up (10%), and preference for postexposure prophylaxis (6.3%). Only a small percentage were concerned about adverse effects (2.8%) or increasing their sexual risk behavior (1.4%).

Just over a quarter (28.4%) of those who started PrEP were diagnosed with an STI during follow-up, and 11.9% had multiple STIs. By 12 months after starting PrEP, 50% of the users had any STI (95% confidence interval [CI], 43% - 56%), including 28% with gonorrhea (95% CI, 23% - 34%) and 5.5% with syphilis (95% CI, 3.3% - 9.1%). A third (33%) had a rectal STI (95% CI, 27% - 39%), and a third (33%) had chlamydia (95% CI, 27% - 39%). None were diagnosed with HIV during the entire follow-up (upper limit of one-sided 97.5% CI, 1.0%).

Among 143 persons surveyed about behavior changes after 6 months of taking PrEP, 74% said their number of sexual partners had not changed, 15% said it had decreased, and 11% said it had increased. Just over half (56%) did not change their condom use, 41% used condoms less often, and 3% used them more.

In an accompanying commentary, Kimberly A. Koester, MA, and Robert M. Grant, MD, MPH, from the University of California, San Francisco, commend the study authors "for creating a clinical environment conducive for gay and other men who have sex with men to feel comfortable enough to use their specialized PrEP program."

They also note the difficulty of interpreting the STI data.

"The increased [frequency] of STI testing offered during PrEP services affords more timely diagnosis and treatment of STIs, and high rates of diagnosis may reflect greater diagnostic yield rather than changes in sexual behavior," Koester and Grant write. "What appears to be high rates of STI diagnosis may reflect appropriate use of PrEP by people who have the most to benefit and people staying closer to their medical home for sexual health services," they write.

Yet they also state that the time has come "for a vigorous conversation about sexually transmitted infections, too long eclipsed by fear of HIV infection."

"Ideally," they write, "the public health response to the possibility of rising incidence of STIs in the context of decreased or no new HIV infections would be framed in relative terms and therefore considered to be a good problem to have."

The research was funded by Kaiser Permanente Northern California. One author has received research grants from Merck. The remaining authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Monday, August 31, 2015

Indian government launched mobile app on HIV AIDS called HELP

Now, a mobile application called HELP (HIV Education and Linkage to Prevention) will provide complete information on HIV, increase awareness and risk perception.

The app will also prompt users to access HIV testing from the nearest centre free of cost. Ensuring confidentiality, with bi-lingual facility and easy compatibility, it is expected to reach more than 11 crore people across urban and rural geographies.

HELP app will be available in Google play store and App store, for a country with 200 million mobile Internet users, it is expected to reach over 11 crore people across the country.

The innovative mobile app was launched by the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in collaboration with AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Department of Telecommunications and National AIDS Control Organization.

J P Nadda, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare, said that technology can open up endless opportunities to reach the young with authentic information on the services on HIV and AIDS. “Technology and youth are inseparable, however, inadequate access to information and complex messages from various sources can confuse the youth,” he said.

Nadda impressed on the need for using technology to guide and educate youth. “There is a dire need to motivate, inform and guide them. This mobile application, aptly titled, HIV education and linkage to prevention (HELP), will bridge the gap helping the youth to know their HIV status. It will transmit information personally to each of them which is a step ahead of door to door health services.”

The Government of India estimates

About 2.40 million Indians are living with HIV
83% are the in age group 15-49 years
39% (930,000) are among women
The epidemic is largely concentrated in only a few states — in the industrialized south and west, and in the north east - with 4 accounting for 55% and another 4 for an additional 22%
Most women are from rural India
Sexual transmission is responsible for 87.4 percent of reported HIV cases
According to WHO, addressing the issue of human rights violations and creating an enabling environment that increases knowledge and encourages behavior change are extremely important to the fight against AIDS. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and numerous NGOs and CBOs are working on HIV/AIDS issues in India at the local, state, and national levels. India also receives technical assistance and funding from a variety of UN partners and bilateral donors - The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s Avahan program, Clinton Health Access Initiative, DFID, GFATM, USG (USAID, CDC and PEPFAR), UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNDP and WHO.

The main challenges faced​ are:

Availability of resources to meet the challenge
Insufficient personnel to address the issue in rural areas in form of government officials, healthcare providers, educators
Lack of internal funds to fight AIDS and HIV with the government. It has to rely on international agencies and NGOs to fund the initiatives
Inability to reach the remote rural areas where infections are high. Communities are proarchial and prefer to be by themselves
Lack of use of data for decision makers on programs and epidemiology essential to tailor response to HIV AIDS
Frequent change in government at local, state and national level and frequent policy changes leading to interuptions in efforts towards the cause
High turnover in state level project directors, resulting in limited continuity and variability in performance across states
Social and cultural factors
Unequal power relations and low status of women in society leading to limited access to human, financial, and economic assets. Women are unable to protect themselves and negotiate safer sex both within and outside of marriage
High social stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV and AIDS. There is harassment by police and ostracism by family and community.
Societal denial especially around men having sex with men, sex workers and their partners and injecting drug users
Poor education around sex in schools and in media
Structural considerations
Poor infastructure of hospitals and health care
High cost of healthcare and hospitals preventing affected people from approaching them for cure
Easy access to spiritual, traditional, herbal healers and medicine hawkers which doesnt provide the right treatment but disillusions on being treated whereas in reality there is no treatment.

Bhanu Pratap Sharma, Secretary, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, said that the newly launched mobile app would complement the efforts of early testing and treatment. “It is vital that we use newer technologies to reach young people with messages on HIV. We stand committed to prevent the young generation from HIV/AIDS,” he said.

Navneet S Kang, Additional Secretary and DG, NACO, said that this application would enable the young to assess their risk to HIV and then, take a step forward and get themselves tested.

Kang added that HIV affects the people most at the productive or young ages. “There is a gap between the estimated number of people living with HIV and those who have tested and know their status. It is critical that people know their HIV status early so that a healthy and quality life can be led with the help of treatment,” he said.

Michael Weinstein, President, AIDS Healthcare Foundation, said that the app would aim to reach the unreached, “The collaboration is strategic as we intend to increase testing and reach the unreached through technology. This can only be achieved by greater identification and technology-based initiatives which can generate awareness about HIV and, thereby, lead to greater testing uptake,” he said.

India is one of the youngest countries in the world with 60% of its population less than 24 years of age. Both the Digital India and Skill India missions are the Prime Minister’s twin promises to the youth of India for a better future. With over 200 million mobile internet users in India, there’s a huge potential to club health services with mobile app technology to maximize outreach and coverage at minimal costs.

Palakkad Indias First Literate HIV Aids District

Palakkad has been declared as the first complete HIV/AIDS literate district in the state, thanks to the joint initiatives of civic authorities and KESS-HAPPI, a voluntary organisation.

In view of increasing number of HIV cases reported in Palakkad, the district panchayat had drawn up a door-to-door campaign programme to educate people about the perils of the disease and the need to discard discrimination against its victims. The six-month project, titled 'Jyothirgamaya', has covered 91 village panchayats and four municipalities in the district.

T.N. Kandamuthan, the district panchayat president while talking to the media persons said that the district earned the title with the help of a project that was implemented for the last nine months.

The project was undertaken by the Palakkad district panchayat and KESS-HAPPI, a voluntary organisation.The name of the project was Jyothirgamaya. 91 gram panchayats along with the help of four municipalities cooperated to implement this project in the district of Palakkad.

This particular project was aimed to increases awareness about AIDS and educates people regarding the discrimination and the social stigma associated with the victims of AIDS.

The governmental officials have spread a message which aims to protect the affected people and to rehabilitate them for a better life to come up to the mainstream of life.

The officers who were responsible and were in charge of the project visited every remote place of the district to provide the information to the uneducated people. The local people have gained a lot of valuable information from the initiative taken by these people.

Pamphlets were distributed to every remote village and household. Classes that were aimed to increase awareness amongst the people were conducted under this project.

Several rallies and quiz contests were also organized by the workers of Asha, Anganwadi and Kudumbasree. Several voluntary organizations also joined hands to make this project Jyothirgamaya a success for the district.

Seminars and awareness classes had been conducted and pamphlets had been distributed in every household, educational institutions and other establishments in these areas with the support of the members of KESS-HAPPI.

The declaration was made in a function last week, district panchayat president T N Kandamuthan said. The core objective of the initiative is to bring down the number of HIV cases in the district, he said.

"According to the available figures, there are 1200 HIV affected patients in the district. The objective of our mission is to check its further spread by educating public about its dangers," he told PTI.

The project is also aimed to remove the society's stigma and discrimination related to the disease, he said.

Hiv Cases on Rise in India

India has the third-highest number of people living with HIV in the world with 2.1 million Indians accounting for about four out of 10 people infected with the deadly virus in the Asia—Pacific region, according to a UN report.

India has the third largest HIV population in the world with approximately 2.1 million people suffering from it, but there are only eight lakh people who are undergoing Anti- Retroviral Therapy (ART) treatment, according to official data.

On World AIDS Day, Union Health Minister had sought the people's involvement to meet the global goals of zero new infection and death from HIV/AIDS. He had also stressed on raising awareness and boosting preventive methods as the key to the success of the mission.

However, the report notes that the programme has to customize its strategies to effectively address the emerging vulnerabilities and adapt them to suit the requirements of different geographical regions.

The report by UNAIDS, the United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS, said that 19 million of the 35 million people living with the virus globally do not know their HIV—positive status and so ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require smart scale—up to close the gap.

The number of HIV patients has registered an increase in states where it was earlier being considered to be non-prevalent with 10 such states together accounting for 57 per cent of new infections in 2012.

According to a report compiled by National Aids Control Organization ( NACO) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), although HIV prevalence declined at the national level, a reverse trend was seen in certain states like Odisha, Jharkhand, Punjab, Assam and Uttarakhand where HIV prevalence earlier was considered to be low.

The number of HIV patients has registered an increase in Bihar, one of the 10 low-prevalence states.

According to a report compiled by National AIDS Control Organization (Naco) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), although HIV prevalence declined at the national-level, a reverse trend was seen in Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Punjab, Assam and Uttarakhand, where HIV prevalence earlier was considered to be low.

Titled "India HIV Estimates-2012", the report points out that the 10 low-prevalence states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Uttarakhand together account for 57 per cent of new infections.

"On the other hand, the six high prevalence states account for only 31 per cent of the 1.16 lakh estimated new infections in 2011 among adults," says the report.

These states are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu.

Indicating a positive trend in these states, it mentions that the adult HIV prevalence declined in these states during the period of 2007-2011. "India has done well overall but if you look state by state, there are varying trends," said UNAIDS India country co-ordinator Oussama Tawil.

Experts attributed the rise in the number of HIV-infected people in the state to better test facilities. According to them, awareness about the disease has also increased and more people are coming for pathological investigations.

The first—ever UNAIDS ‘Gap Report’ said after sub—Saharan Africa, the region with the largest number of people living with HIV is Asia and the Pacific.

At the end of 2013, there were an estimated 4.8 million people living with HIV across the region.

Six countries - China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam - account for more than 90 per cent of the people living with HIV in the region.

“India has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world — 2.1 million at the end of 2013 — and accounts for about 4 out of 10 people living with HIV in the region,” the report said.

It said HIV treatment coverage is only 36 per cent in India, where 51 per cent of AIDS—related deaths occur.

In India, the numbers of new HIV infections declined by 19 per cent, yet it still accounted for 38 per cent of all new HIV infections in the region.

The proportions of people who do not have access to antiretroviral therapy treatment are 64 per cent in India.

In Asia and the Pacific, the number of AIDS—related deaths fell by 37 per cent between 2005 and 2013, the report said.

India recorded a 38 per cent decline in AIDS—related deaths between 2005 and 2013. During this period, there was a major scale up of access to HIV treatment, it said.

At the end of 2013, more than 700,000 people were on antiretroviral therapy, the second largest number of people on treatment in any single country.

In India, HIV prevalence among female sex workers dropped from 10.3 per cent to 2.7 per cent but it increased in the states of Assam, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, the report said.

A look at the HIV prevalence among sex workers:

The estimated population size of sex workers is 868,000, of which 2.8 per cent is HIV—positive. In India, HIV prevalence among women who inject drugs was nearly twice that or more than the figures for their male counterparts, it said.

Monday, August 24, 2015

What are Common Health Issues Faced By Women in India

Women in India face issues like malnutrition, lack of maternal health, diseases like AIDS, breast cancer, domestic violence and many more.


Nutrition plays a major role in and individual’s overall health, psychological and physical health status is often dramatically impacted by the presence of malnutrition.

India has one of the highest rates of malnourished women among developing countries. A 2012 study by Tarozzi have found the nutritional intake of early adolescents to be approximately equal. However, it is seen that the rate of malnutrition increases for women as they enter adulthood

Maternal malnutrition has been associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality and also child birth defects. Addressing the issues of malnutrition would have a beneficial outcomes for women and children.

Lack of maternal health

The lack of maternal health contributes to the economic disparities of mothers and their children.

Poor maternal health not only affects a child’s health in adverse ways but also decreases a woman’s ability to participate in economic activities. Therefore, national health programs such as the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the Family Welfare Program have been created to address the maternal health care needs of women across India. Although India has witnessed dramatic growth over the last two decades, maternal mortality still remains high as in comparison to many developing nations.

India contributes to nearly 20 percent of all maternal deaths worldwide between 1992 and 2006. The primary reasons for the high levels of maternal mortality are directly related to disparities of economic conditions and cultural constraints limiting access to care.

However, maternal mortality is not identical across all of India or even a particular state urban areas often have lower overall maternal mortality due to the availability of adequate medical resources. For those states where there is higher literacy and growth rates tend to have greater maternal health and also lower infant mortality.

Suicide is a major problem in India. The suicide rate in India is five times higher than that of the developed world. Furthermore, the rate of suicide has been found to be higher in women as compared to men in India.

The most common reasons for women's suicide is directly related to:

Gender discrimination
Domestic violence
The suicide rate is particularly high among female sex workers in India, who face numerous forms of discrimination for their gender and line of work.

Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a major issues in India. Domestic violence is defined as acts of physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women is found across the world and is currently viewed as a hidden epidemic by the World Health Organization.

As per reports of India National Family Health Survey III ((2005-2006), 31 percent of all women reported having been the victims of physical violence in the last 12 months. However, the actual number of victims may be much higher. The study found that the poorest women faired worst among middle and high-income women.

Friday, August 14, 2015

What is surrogacy?

Surrogacy is when another woman carries and gives birth to a baby for the couple who want to have a child.A surrogacy arrangement or surrogacy agreement is the carrying of a pregnancy for intended parents. There are two main types of surrogacy, gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy. In gestational surrogacy, the pregnancy results from the transfer of an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF), in a manner so the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. 

Types of surrogacy 
There are two types of surrogacy — traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy. In traditional surrogacy, a surrogate mother is artificially inseminated, either by the intended father or an anonymous donor, and carries the baby to term. The child is thereby genetically related to both the surrogate mother, who provides the egg, and the intended father or anonymous donor.

A Traditional Surrogate acts as both egg donor and surrogate.  Traditional Surrogates are impregnated by a process called intrauterine insemination or IUI. A doctor transfers sperm taken from the intended father and transfers the sperm into the uterus of the surrogate so that natural fertilization can take place. Traditional Surrogacy creates a genetic link between potential parents & Surrogate mother, that’s why this type of surrogacy is merely chosen by the infertile patients. By using traditional surrogacy, the surrogate acts as both an egg donor and a actual surrogate as well, and she is impregnated with semen from the intended parents or any Sperm donor. 

This process is completed by using a process known as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).Therefore, with traditional surrogacy, the surrogate is also called the biological mother of the child.

Traditional surrogacy is more controversial than gestational surrogacy, in large part because the biological relationship between the surrogate and the child often complicates the facts of the case if parental rights or the validity of the surrogacy agreement are challenged. As a result, most states prohibit traditional surrogacy agreements. Additionally, many states that permit surrogacy agreements prohibit compensation beyond the payment of medical and legal expenses incurred as a result of the surrogacy agreement.

Surrogacy Qualifications

Most surrogacy agencies and fertility clinics require surrogates to meet the following general qualifications:

a. Be in good physical and mental health;
b. Have carried and delivered at least one child;
c. Have had pregnancies that were all free of complications and were full-term;
d. Be less than 43 years of age (some clinics will accept older woman in certain circumstances; others have younger age cut-offs for all surrogates);
e. Be in a stable living situation; and
f. Not smoke or abuse alcohol.

In the past few years surrogacy has seen an increase in utilization, especially among very prominent social figures. Sarah Jessica Parker and Ricky Martin have both recently had children through surrogates. Will their happily ever after stories be the ones to change the negative public perceptions that have dominated the media for the past three decades? Or, are these stories simply highlighting the ways in which surrogacy can be seen as stratified reproduction, a technology only available for the wealthy? Both of these celebrity stories showcase how positive surrogacy can be for different people facing different realities of infertility. While this may be a step towards acceptance for surrogacy as a viable and accepted form of reproduction, there have been other stories featured recently within the New York Times emulating Baby M, reinforcing negative perceptions once again.

Based on available statistics, which are quite incomplete due to a lack of reporting regulations, about 1,500 to 2,000 surrogate/contracted babies are born per annum in the United States (Ali and Kelley 2008, 44). In addition, several thousands more are born each year as the result of a surrogate arrangement in a wide-variety of nations worldwide. Australia, Canada, and Brazil report numbers at least as large as those reported in the United States (Covington and Burns 2006, 371); and in India, where commercial surrogacy was legalized in 1992, poor women are recruited to gestate what may amount to hundreds (more likely thousands) of babies for couples throughout the world .

The medical risks of surrogacy

There are certain medical risks involved with surrogacy. These risks are similar to those that may be experienced with all other methods of assisted reproductive treatment. These may include:
Effects on the child born as a result of the treatment – IVF treatment has a greater chance of producing multiple births, which increases the chance of a premature birth and a baby that is below the normal birth weight.
Effects on the egg provider – there can be reactions to fertility drugs, including hot flushes, feelings of depression or irritation, headaches and restlessness. There is also a small risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurring, which can cause stomach pains, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath and faintness. This condition is extremely rare.
Effects on the surrogate – there are the usual risks associated with any pregnancy and birth. These risks are increased with the age of the surrogate.

Celebrities for Surrogacy

Shah Rukh Khan and wife Gauri had a surrogate baby, AbRam, in May 2013.
Nicole Kidman and her husband, singer Keith Urban, had their second child through surrogacy in 2011.
Aamir Khan and Kiran Rao had a son via a surrogate mother in 2011.
Sohail Khan and wife Seema had their second child through surrogacy in 2011.
Elton John and his partner David Furnish had a son using a surrogate mom in 2010. This year they had another surrogate baby, also a boy.
Sarah Jessica Parker of Sex and the City fame and her husband, actor Matthew Broderick, had twin babies through surrogacy in 2009.
Robert De Niro and his wife Grace Hightower had a baby girl via a surrogate in 2011. De Niro and Hightower were 68 and 56 respectively at that time.

First Case of Surrogacy

The first "official" legal surrogacy agreement was enacted in the mid-1970's with the child who was referred to as Baby M. The same lawyer who brokered this agreement went on to found the Infertility Center, a company that arranges hundreds of surrogate births every year.

During that same time frame, surrogacy made the national and international news with the world's first "test tube" baby, Louise Joy Brown. Although this was not technically a surrogate mother situation, this event did pave the way towards what is now known as gestational surrogacy – a practice that is used today for implanting both sperm and egg in a laboratory to later be placed into the surrogate mother's uterus.

It wasn't until 1980 though, that the first paid traditional surrogacy arrangement was conducted. In this case, the surrogate mother, a 37-year old woman, was paid $10,000 for the successful delivery of a baby boy.