Thursday, September 22, 2016

How does PEP works?

PEP is recommended because it has been observed that systemic infection does not occur immediately after an exposure and there is a brief window period of opportunity  available to contain or eradicate HIV from body before wide spread cellular infection occur. After a needle-stick injury, immune cells (dendritic) in skin present the  HIV to T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. It is seen that in monkey models, Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) when injected into vagina, virus is engulfed by immune cells in the vaginal lining. Within 2 days SIV is found in inguinal lymph nodes. Within 5 days SIV infected T-cells and free SIV can be detected in blood stream  9. Migration of SIV after rectal or penile tip exposure follows a similar time frame. PEP can stop viral replication during this early period before it gains a 'foothold' in the body. 

Determination of the Exposure Code in PEP

Exposure code can be defined as per the flow chart given below. It may be classified into three categories, EC-1, EC-2 and EC-3, depending upon the severity of exposure.

Sunday, September 18, 2016

PEP Initial Evaluation

What is considered to be a potential exposure to HIV, HBV or HCV?
For transmission of blood borne pathogens (HIV, HBV and HCV) to occur, an exposure must include both of the following:
• Infectious body fluid
o Blood, semen, vaginal fluids, amniotic fluids, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid and synovial flood can transmit HIV, HBV and HCV.
• Note that saliva, vomitus, urine, feces, sweat, tears and respiratory secretions do not transmit HIV (unless visibly bloody). The risk of HBV and HCV transmission from non-bloody saliva is negligible.
• A portal of entry
(percutaneous, mucous membrane, cutaneous with non-intact skin).
If both of these factors are not present, there is no risk of transmission and further evaluation is not required.

What baseline testing should be performed after an exposure?
(If no exposure occurred or Source Person tests negative, no testing is clinically indicated. Testing may be considered for other purposes including medico legal concerns or as per institutional protocols.)
Source Person (SP):
• HIV Ab (rapid HIV Ab testing preferred if accessible)*
• HCV Ab
• HBV surface Ag
*If SP’s rapid HIV Ab test is positive, assume this is a true positive and send confirmatory testing, usually with a Western Blot test. See below*.
Exposed Person (EP):
• HIV Ab
• HCV Ab
• HBV testing: Depends on immunization status.
Note that most healthcare and public safety personnel have been vaccinated against hepatitis B. If previously vaccinated and they know they responded to the vaccination series (a positive titer is >10mIU/mL, but most do not know their titer), they are considered to have lifelong immunity and require no further testing or treatment. Similarly, if employee health records indicate they responded to the vaccination series, they are considered to be immune. For all others, see the “Exposures to HBV and HCV” section of this guide.

*Is the rapid HIV test accurate enough to decide on whether to give PEP?
Yes, the rapid HIV test is extremely sensitive and specific and can be used to determine whether to offer PEP. A positive rapid HIV test should be considered a true positive for the purposes of PEP decision-making. A negative rapid test should be considered a true negative. Investigation of whether a source might be in the “window period” is unnecessary for determining whether HIV PEP is indicated unless acute retroviral syndrome is clinically suspected.

Friday, September 16, 2016

How PEP Works

We don’t have a cure for HIV, but we do have the next best thing: Prevention. In addition to condoms, clean needles, and public education, there is a now a new tool in the fight against the spread of HIV: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) medication. Also known as the HIV morning-after pill, these drugs help to drastically reduce the risk of contracting HIV if taken soon after exposure. Here’s what you need to know to keep yourself and your loved ones safe.

PEP is an antiretroviral medicine (ART) taken after potential exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected. According to, PEP must be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV, but the sooner you start PEP, the better.

Once prescribed PEP, you will need to take it either once or twice daily for 28 days. The drugs work by helping the immune system to stop the virus from multiplying inside the body’s cells. According to Get, cells that are already infected usually die naturally within a short period of time, and without means of reproducing, the virus is unable to spread and therefore infect an individual.

Unfortunately, PEP is not 100 percent effective at preventing HIV infections. In some cases, patients do not take the drug at the prescribed dosage for the prescribed amount of time. Other times, patients are infected with a strain of HIV which the drugs cannot work against, or the initial viral exposure was too great for the drugs to be effective.

The drugs are often given to those who believe they have been exposed to HIV, either through unprotected sex, shared needles, or victims of sexual assault. In addition, the drug costs between $600 and $1,000 and is meant to be used only in emergency situations, and should not be the go-to means of protection against the virus. Those who are possibly often exposed to HIV, such as individuals with HIV-positive partners, are advised to instead take PrEP, a daily drug that works similarly to lower infection risk.

PEP can have minor non-life threatening side effects such as nausea. Those who cannot afford to pay for the drug may qualify for either reimbursement or free medication through special programs.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

What is emergency HIV treatment?

Do you think you have been exposed to HIV within the last 72 hours?

If yes, you may be able to get treatment to prevent HIV infection.

Post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is another name for emergency HIV treatment. PEP is not a cure for HIV, it is a form of HIV prevention. It is a short course of antiretroviral drugs that stops exposure to HIV from becoming a life-long infection.

Taking PEP
PEP can cause side effects such as nausea and fatigue. DO NOT stop taking PEP - talk to your healthcare professional.
PEP must be taken as soon as possible to be effective and no later than 72 hours after exposure to HIV.
PEP must be taken at the same time every day for 4 weeks.1

Can I get PEP?
Not everyone is given PEP and it is not available everywhere. A healthcare professional will advise you if they think you should take PEP. Do not assume you will be offered it.

Usually you should only take PEP if...
it has not been longer than 72 hours since exposure to HIV
you are not already living with HIV
a mucous membrance (including: eyes, mouth, vagina, rectum) has had direct contact with someone’s bodily fluid that might be infectious
an open wound has had direct conact with someone’s bodily fluid that might be infectious
the source of exposure is infected with HIV or their HIV status is unknown.

PEP and HIV testing
It’s normal to feel anxious about being infected with HIV. Don’t let being worried stop you from getting an HIV test.

If you took PEP - get tested 3 and 6 months after potential exposure.
If you didn’t take PEP - get tested 3 months after potential exposure.
PEP in pregnancy

Certain PEP drugs can be taken during pregnancy. However, some drugs should not be used for PEP if you are pregnant. Speak to a healthcare professional about your options.

PEP during breastfeeding
PEP can be taken when breastfeeding. PEP reduces the chance of passing HIV to your baby via breastfeeding. Follow the advice of your healthcare professional and national breastfeeding guidelines.

PEP after sexual assault
If you have been sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help. A healthcare professional will advise you what to do next and they may suggest taking PEP.

Assault is never your fault. You have the right to report it to your local authority if you want to.

You might also need...
Urgent treatment for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or blood borne viruses.
Emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies:
the morning after pill must be taken within 72 hours
the intrauterine device (IUD or coil) can be fitted within 5 days of unprotected sex.
Emotional support, advice and counseling

Getting the right support is important before, during and after taking PEP. It can help address any concerns or fears that you might have. Attend follow-up visits with your healthcare team regularly.

PEP must not be used as a frequent way to prevent HIV infection. Use condoms and safer sex practices to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

Where to get PEP?

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor or pharmacy immediately.

You have the right to:

enquire about PEP
refuse PEP
have confidential support and advice
stop taking PEP.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Can PEP stop HIV?

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) may stop you developing an HIV infection if you’ve been exposed to the virus. However, it doesn’t always work.
You may have been exposed to HIV if you've:
had unprotected sex (without using a condom)
had sex with someone with HIV and the condom broke
been injured with an HIV-infected needle

What is PEP?
PEP is a course of anti-HIV medication. You must start the treatment as soon as possible after you’ve been exposed to HIV, ideally within a few hours. The medicines must be taken every day for four weeks.
PEP is unlikely to work if it’s started after 72 hours (three days) and it won’t usually be prescribed after this time.
PEP makes infection with HIV less likely. However, it’s not a cure for HIV and it doesn’t work in all cases. Some strains of HIV aren't affected by the medicines.
Also, the treatment may not work if you:
take the medicines incorrectly
don't start taking the medicines soon enough

What are the side effects of PEP?
PEP can have severe side effects, such as:
prolonged headaches
If you’re already HIV-positive, but don’t know it, you could develop drug resistance to PEP if you don’t take your doses properly. This could limit your treatment options in the future.

Where can I get PEP?
PEP is only available on prescription. You can get PEP from:
a sexual health or genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic
an A&E department of a hospital
However, PEP may not be available in all areas of England. GPs can't usually prescribe PEP.
Find your nearest GUM clinic
Find your nearest A&E department
When you request to have PEP, you’ll be asked some questions, such as:
who you had sex with, to assess your risk of exposure to HIV
whether you had oral, vaginal or anal sex
whether the other person definitely had HIV – and if known, what was their "viral load"

PEP and HIV tests
You’ll be asked to take an HIV test before starting PEP treatment, to check whether you already have HIV. If you don’t agree to an HIV test, you won't be given PEP.
You’ll also need an HIV test after the treatment, to check that it’s been successful.

Safe sex
HIV can’t be cured. Don't rely on PEP to prevent HIV, because it doesn’t always work.
Using a condom is the best way to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Ways to Ease your Hangover

The chirping birds sound like nuclear-powered crows cawing through loudspeakers, and all that blond daylight streaming through the window has an acidic effect on your eyes. You are - lamentably, maybe corruptly, avoidably, but quite certainly - hung over. And the biggest question is: What can you do about it?

Now all is not lost, because if you are all geared up for hangover, you sure can reduce its effects too. And as our granny’s would say- is the dad of stopping all evils.
Here are some tricks which will help you sail through the day after as painlessly as probable.
Never drink on an empty stomach.
Drink but do munch along.
Darlings, do not act macho. Prove your ego elsewhere!
 Mixing is a big no-no. Spare that poor liver of yours!
If you are drinking 2 parts of alcohol, sip at least 1 part of water along.

Cold Water

The swift splash of cold water, will give you much needed push. This rush provokes the quick production of adrenaline in the body. As a result, the adrenaline elevates your easiness for the hangover’s effects. The headache and the profound sensation will steadily reduce. Depending on your luck, it may suddenly vanish even!
Water, milk, juice- Drink it all!

Drinking, which weakens your body and makes you feel weighty, is one of the terrible after-effects of binging on drinks. So to avoid dehydration just gulp tons of water and let it all be flushed. However, make sure you are not found near coffee in any case as it further aggravates the headache and dehydrate you.

Sleep Over Your Drinks Rage

Even after taking proper medication, you still don’t feel all right; then the super excellent solution to deal with it- is just to sleep on it. Despite the fact that, the main worry is, how do you put yourself to slumber with a bad migraine?

Soothing music – Let your mood be influenced to make you the king of la la land. Play soft jazz or blues, even though urbane, these songs induce a sleepy feel, which assists you in your cause to recuperate from a hangover.

Puke the inside turmoil out - Puking is pretty rough but it is the lesser of two ills when compared to an awful hangover. While we're on the subject, it is also an useful hangover remedy. After puking, you will feel much relaxed, as all the toxins will be washed out of your system. Force it or let it come out with its own flow, just do it, we say!

Scalp Massage – Tel maalish is one just going one step closer to heaven. Try it and you’ll be left asking for more.

Bedtime Story - This option may look childlike, but it is really valuable. As the tale jogs, your ears get familiarized to it. And soon you’ll be waving to your dreamland.

Never drink on an empty stomach.
Drink but do munch along.
The swift splash of cold water, will give you much needed push.
Puke the inside turmoil out.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Health Benefits Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet fruit. Grapefruit is a hybrid originating in Barbados as an accidental cross between two introduced species, sweet orange  and pomelo or shaddock , both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century. When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit"; and it has also been misidentified with the pomelo.A nutritious member of the citrus family, grapefruits are large, tart and tangy fruits known primarily for their vitamin C content. The fruit, often mistaken for a pomelo, can be found with either white, pink, or red pulps – all with different levels of sweetness while offering very similar benefits. The best part? While grapefruits are normally in season from winter through early spring, you can experience the health benefits of grapefruit all year round.

The evergreen grapefruit trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters (16–20 ft) tall, although they can reach 13–15 m (43–49 ft). The leaves are glossy dark green, long (up to 15 centimeters (5.9 in)) and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and generally an oblate spheroid in shape; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in). The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness (generally, the redder varieties are sweeter). The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.

Colors and flavors
Grapefruit comes in many varieties. One way to differentiate between varieties is by the flesh color of fruit they produce. The most popular varieties cultivated today are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat sour to sweet and tart. Grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.

Nutritional properties
Grapefruit is a rich source (>20% of the Daily Value, DV in a 100 gram serving) of vitamin C, contains the fiber pectin, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene. Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol, and there is evidence that the seeds have antioxidant properties. Grapefruit forms a core part of the "grapefruit diet", the theory being that the fruit's low glycemic index is able to help the body's metabolism burn fat.

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to have strong antimicrobial properties against fungi. It is also believed to have antimicrobial properties for bacteria; however, there are no known studies that demonstrate its efficacy. Additionally, although GSE is promoted as a highly effective plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies have shown that the apparent antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives.

There is a popular myth that grapefruits contain high amounts of spermidine, a simple polyamine that may be related to aging. The myth probably relies on the confusion between spermidine and putrescine. While citrus fruits show high amounts of putrescine, they contain very little spermidine.

Health Benefits of Grapefruit

Seeing as grapefruits are rich in essential vitamins and minerals, there is no doubt that the fruit can provide numerous health benefits. Below you will learn about at least 10 grapefruit health benefits that you can share with your friends and family.

High level of Antioxidants
Grapefruit contains a high concentration of Vitamin C as it’s a citrus fruit. Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant.It helps in preventing and provides protection against the cold and flu. It does so by strengthening the immune system.It’s not Vitamin C alone that ensures the strengthening of the immune system; Vitamin C combines with other nutrients and vitamins to optimize the immune function. The high amount of antioxidants in grapefruit fight the damage caused by free radicals and oxidative stress. Thus, it protects from skin cancer and gives a youthful appearance to the skin by stunting the aging process.Also, grapefruit nourishes skin to protect from many skin disease

An Incredible Lift to the Immune System
Copious amounts of vitamin C helps prevent or fight the common cold. There are some indicators that vitamin C may also protect against cancers of the mouth and stomach. Grapefruit also combat free radicals that can reek havoc in the body. Cancer, stroke, and heart attack may all related to unchecked free radicals.

Liver Cleansing, Detoxifcation 
Grapefruit contains numerous liver-cleansing agents. Among them are vitamin C, various antioxidants, and phytonutrients called limonoids that helps toxic compounds to excrete from the liver by making them more water soluble. The fruit also contains a flavonoid compound known as naringenin, as mentioned earlier, which causes the liver to burn fat rather than store it.

Protect from Inflammation
Grapefruit is a rich source of antioxidants like Vitamin C that protects from inflammation.Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of collagen that repairs and heals blood vessels, tendons, joints, and bones.This way it protects from inflammation and pain caused due to the severity of inflammatory conditions. Its function makes it a valuable aid in the treatment of osteoporosis and arthritis.It controls the severity and degeneration of bones which is a characteristic of arthritis.

Natural Fat Burner
Grapefruit that burns fat is not a simple rumor or fad. Scientific research reveals the amazing power of this wonderful breakfast or anytime fruit. Simply enjoy a glass of grapefruit juice or half of a grapefruit before each meal to reap the benefits. Those who participated in the experiment lost up to four pounds in twelve weeks.

Helps Treat Gum Disease
According to a study published in the British Dental Journal, consuming 2 grapefruits each day for two weeks results in significantly less bleeding of the gums. Grapefruits were shown to drastically increase plasma vitamin C levels and help manage periodontal disease.

Reduces Cholesterol
LDL or Low-Density Lipoprotein is termed as bad cholesterol whereas HDL, the High-Density Lipoprotein is considered good cholesterol.Though grapefruit has no cholesterol in its composition, compounds present in grapefruit helps in the reduction of LDL cholesterol and increase the levels of HDL cholesterol.Studies have conclusively shown that Red grapefruit followed by white grapefruit are very useful in improving the cholesterol levels and balance in the body.But this is not an overnight process. It shows results only when regularly consumed over a long period

Promoting a Healthy Pregnancy
Rich in folate and vitamin C, grapefruits can be great for promoting a healthy pregnancy. Vitamin C works to promote proper bone growth, bone development tissue repair, and helps to maintain cell strength in the womb. Folate, an extremely important B vitamin for pregnant mothers, helps prevent birth defects like spina bifida and helps the baby to grow sufficiently.

Lowers your Risk of Diabetes
Diabetes is a lifestyle disease increasingly becoming common in the middle-aged population.Nowadays even children are falling prey to the condition called Juvenile diabetes or type I diabetes.Type I diabetes occurs in newborn infants or younger children and requires massive external insulin supplementation.Type II diabetes occurs more often in people who are much older. It begins at the age of about forty years and can be controlled by maintaining healthy active lifestyle and managing diabetes-friendly diet.Diabetics  cannot eat a majority of fruits because of their high sugar content. The good news is that they can safely eat grapefruit and, in fact, increased consumption helps to reduce and burn the starch and sugar content in the body. Even if you are not diagnosed with diabetes, but have a family history that makes you vulnerable to it, then you should include grapefruit in your diet.

Health Benefits of Mosambi Sweet lime Citrus limetta

Citrus limetta, alternatively considered to be a cultivar of Citrus limon, is a species of citrus, commonly known as sweet lime, sweet lemon, and sweet limetta.

It is native to South- and Southeast Asia and cultivated in the Mediterranean Basin.

In Iran it is called Limu Shirin 
In North India, it is commonly called mousambi, mosambi, or musambi .
In South India, it is called Moosambi in Kannada and Malayalam, Bathaya Kaayalu Cheeni Kaayaluin Telugu, and sathukudi in Tamil.
In Nepali, it is called Mausam.
In Sindh it is known as mosami.
In France it is sometimes called bergamot; it should not be confused with Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange.
It is a different fruit from the Palestinian sweet lime and from familiar sour limes such as the Key lime and the Persian lime.

Sweet lime is almost exclusively served as juice, and is the most common available citrus juice in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The juice is commonly sold at mobile road stalls, where it is freshly pressed, sometimes served with a salty chat masala or kala namak, unless the vendor is told not to add it.

Like most citrus, the fruit is rich in vitamin C, providing 50 mg per 100 g serving. In Iran it is used to treat influenza and common cold.

The tree is used for ornamental purposes as well as for graft stock.

Mosambi or Sweet lime is also known as the mousambi, musambi (in North India), Moosambi (in South India), Mishta nimbuka (in Sanskrit), Meeta nimbuka (in Hindi), sweet lemon (in Persian) and sweet limetta. It is a citrus fruit (belongs to the Citrus family) which was first originated in the regions of Mediterranean Southeast Asia.

Health Benefits Of Mosambi:

Mosambi is a versatile fruit with a sweet and sour taste. This amazing fruit renders terrific nutritional value. This fruit is widely consumed in the form of drinks, jams, pickles, candies, snacks and sorbets. The juice of this fruit is also versatile and is used in salads and to marinate meat. Some of the health benefits of mosambi are given below.

Sweet lime or Mosambi juice is very famous juice all through the India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and can be found in almost every season (however, sufficiently available in July, August and November, March.) at road side shops and fruit mandi. People generally like drinking its juice during summer season by adding some salty chat masala, kala namak and etc.

Benefits of Mosambi for Digestive System

Stimulates Digestive System Functioning
Mosambi has a high content of flavonoids that stimulate the digestive system by increasing the secretion of digestive juices, acids and bile. Hence, mosambi juice is often recommended to people suffering from indigestion, irregular bowel movement and other gastrointestinal problems. Thus, it aids digestion by neutralizing the acidic digestive juices produced by the stomach and flushes out the toxins from the excretory system. The compounds found in this fruit are beneficial for peristaltic motion. Sweet lime also helps in controlling diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

Cures Digestive System Disorders
Mosambi helps in curing some common digestive system disorders like nausea, indigestion, irregular bowel movements and etc.
Boosts Digestion Process
It boosts up the digestion process as it helps in neutralizing the extra acids produced by stomach as well as flushes out body toxins through excretory system.
It keeps peristaltic motion healthy and helps in controlling nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Relieves Constipation
Sweet lime makes bowel tract smooth and provides relief from the constipation as it is contains good level of dietary fibers which acts as roughage (purgative property) and makes stool soft and easy passage.
Promotes Healing of Ulcers
Flavonoids found in it called Limomin Glucoside has anti carcinogenic, antioxidant and antibiotic properties thus helps in healing internal wounds called ulcers (oral and peptic).

Benefits of Mosambi in Scurvy Disease

Treats Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin C. This disease is characterized by bleeding, swollen gums, frequent bouts of flu and cold, ulcers in the mouth and tongue, and cracked lip corners. The sweet limes can stop the bleeding of gums. Mix mosambi juice with a few drops of pure water and add a pinch of black salt to the mixture. This mixture should be applied to the affected gums for an immediate relief from bleeding gums. Halitosis (bad breath) can be eliminated by sipping lime juice and sucking on lime rinds.
Fulfills Need of Vitamin C
Regular intake of mosambi (whole or juice) helps in reducing all the symptoms of scurvy disease by fulfilling the level of required vitamin C in the body.
Controls Bleeding Gums
Sweet lime makes gums stronger than before and helps in controlling bleeding from gums and bad breath problem.

Benefits of Mosambi Juice/Sweet Lime Juice

Energizes Body
Regular intake of mosambi juice helps in relieving fatigue and weakness due to motion sickness.
Relieves Heart Burn and Acidity
Drinking a glass of mosambi juice on daily basis helps in relieving from heartburn and acidity.
Prevents from Sunstroke and Dehydration
It has ability to prevent from the sunstroke and dehydration during summer season as it contains lots of water, essential vitamins, electrolytes and minerals.
Reduces Muscle Cramps
It is highly preferred by the sport persons and athletes after their hard work out sessions as it fulfills the water level and reduces muscle cramps.
Maintains Blood Sugar Level
Sweet lime juice is very beneficial for the diabetic patients if the mixture of mosambi juice, amla juice and honey is taken with empty stomach in the early morning.
Prevents from Eye Disorders
Its antioxidant and anti-bacterial nature provides eye protection from various infections like conjunctivitis and age related muscular degeneration.

Improves The Immune System:
The regular consumption of mosambi juice brings about an improvement in the overall heart functioning. Thus, it ensures proper blood circulation and contributes to a much healthier immune system. Vitamin C boosts the immunity levels and prevents cold.

Benefits of Mosambi Juice in Pregnancy
Promotes Better Growth of Fetus
Sweet lime juice is good source of potassium, calcium and vitamin C which are necessarily required by the growing fetus for the proper growth and development.
Promotes Functioning of Brain and Nervous System
Its cooling property keeps brain and nervous system functions smooth thus prevents from brain fever and mental issues during pregnancy to both mother and baby.
Boosts Blood Circulation
Mosambi juice has high level of vitamin C which boosts the blood circulation all through the body thus keeps both mother and baby healthy.
Benefits of Mosambi Juice in jaundice

Regularizes Liver Functioning
Mosambi juice is considered that it reduces the symptoms of jaundice by regularizing the liver functioning and controlling bile secretion in the body thus highly preferred by the doctor for the people suffering from jaundice.

Cures Respiratory Problems
It helps in curing asthma and other respiratory problems if mosambi juice is taken by mixing some cumin seeds and dry ginger powder.

Prevents from Infection
Sweet lime provides relief during tonsillitis and its painful symptoms as it is rich in vitamin C which reduces infections of cold, cough and fever as well as soothes irritating, dry, itchy and sore throat.

Benefits of Sweet lime Juice for men
Strengthens Body and Improves Sperm Count
Regular consumption of mosambi juice enhances appetite level, purifies blood as well as raises the sperm quality and count among men.

Benefits of Citrus limetta Juice for Hair
Its antiseptic and antibacterial properties add lots of benefits towards beauty therapies which are mentioned below:
Strengthens Hair
It helps in strengthening hair because of its richness in vitamins and minerals.
Treats Hair Loss
Mosambi juice helps in treating split hair ends and dandruff problem.
Promotes Hair Growth
It makes hair bright, shiny, long, natural black and strong as it provides all the required nutrients for the hair growth and maintenance.
Provides Natural Color to Hair
It is rich source of copper mineral which involve in the formation of pigment melanin thus provides natural color to the hair.

Benefits of Citrus limetta Juice for Skin
Provides Wonderful Skin
Drinking mosambi juice regularly is very good for getting wonderful skin as it contains high vitamin C level (used in manufacturing various skincare products and medicinal supplements in order to treat dry, rough skin, improving skin tone, speeding up healing and so many.
Removes Dark Pigmentation and Spots
It has mild bleaching and cleansing property and helps to get rid of dark pigmentation, spots, acne, pimples, blemishes and etc.
Lightens Skin Tone
It provides glowing, radiant and smooth skin by reducing the scars of insect bite and lightening the skin tone if consumed regularly.
Detoxify Body
Sweet lime juice helps in detoxifying the body which provides natural glow and shine to the skin.
Cures Dark and Cracked Lips
It helps in lightening the dark skin on lips as well as curing cracked lips.

Other Health Benefits of Sweet lime
Used to Prepare Various Medicines
Oil extracts from mosambi is used in manufacturing various medicines (balms, inhalers, vaporizers and etc) treating respiratory problems because of its anti-congestive property.
Prevents from Infection
Its richness of vitamin C helps in boosting immunity level which ultimately helps body to stay at bay from various infections and disorders like heart disorders, improper blood circulation, cold, flu and etc.
Prevents from Bone Problems
Sweet lime provides protection against rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, inflammations and swellings thus good to maintain the health of bones.
Regularizes BP and Cholesterol Level
It helps in maintaining normal cholesterol level, blood pressure and weight loss if a glass of little warm water is taken with mosambi juice and honey.
Removes Body Toxins
It contains high level of potassium electrolyte which manages proper blood flow all over the body thus detoxifies kidneys, liver and bladder by removing toxins which ultimately reduces occurrence of infections and urinary disorders.
Prevents Accumulation of Uric Acid
Its antioxidant nature prevents accumulation of uric acid and bad effects of free radicals in the body by flushing out all the unnecessary uric acids and neutralizing free radicals.
Nutritional Benefits of Mosambi/Sweet Lime per 100 g

Energy: 43 kcal
Carbohydrate: 9.3 g
Water: 88 g
Sugar: 1.7 g
Dietary fibers: 0.5 g
Fat: 0.3 g
Protein: 0.7-0.8 g
Vitamin C: 50 mg
Vitamin A: 20 IU
Calcium: 40 mg
Iron: 0.7 mg
Phosphorus: 30 mg
Potassium: 490 mg

Friday, April 29, 2016

Physical Changes To Your Body by HIV

As HIV disease progresses in your body, you may notice physical changes. Some changes may occur as side-effects of medical treatment for HIV. Others may occur as a result of the impact that HIV (or AIDS) has on your body.

Some medications you may take to control HIV cause changes in the way your body produces, uses, and stores fat. These changes are called lipodystrophy. This condition causes you to gain or lose fat in particular parts of your body.

You can get extra fat in the following places:

Breasts (both men and women)

In addition, you can also develop small deposits of fat, called lipomas, elsewhere on your body.
Other changes can occur when the fat under your skin (called subcutaneous fat) is lost. This can occur in your:


It is important to note that these changes in the way your body handles fat can also coincide with changes in cholesterol, an increase in triglycerides, increases in blood sugar, and lowered sensitivity to insulin, which may lead to diabetes.

Wasting syndrome is the involuntary loss of more than 10% of your body weight, in addition to more than 30 days of either diarrhea or weakness and fever. Wasting refers to a loss of muscle mass, although part of the weight loss may also be due to loss of fat. HIV-associated wasting syndrome is considered an AIDS-defining condition.

While this is often a sign of late stage disease, wasting syndrome can be treated by:
Proper diet
Medications to stimulate appetite
Medications to control diarrhea
Hormonal therapy to build muscle

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Health Benefits of Apple

The apple tree is a deciduous tree in the rose family best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit, the apple. It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.

Apple trees are large if grown from seed, but small if grafted onto roots (rootstock). There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

About 80 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2013, and China produced almost half of this total.The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects are thought to result from eating apples; however, two types of allergies are attributed to various proteins found in the fruit.

Health Benefits of Apple

Apples are the second most popular fruit in the US (bananas are the first),1 with each American eating about 19 pounds a year. 

Undoubtedly, many of those apples are consumed right now, during the fall, which is peak season for apples in the US. This is one sweet treat that you can feel good about eating, too, as apples are packed with disease-fighting vitamins, antioxidants and more, easily making them one of the top-ranked fruits for your health

Apples Ranked Second Highest for Antioxidant Activity

Compared to other commonly consumed fruits in the US, apples ranked second for highest antioxidant activity. However, they ranked highest for the proportion of free phenolic compounds, which means they are not bound to other compounds in the fruit and therefore may be more easily absorbed into your bloodstream.

Notably, much of apples' antioxidant power is contained in the peel, where you'll find antioxidants like catechin, procyanidins, chlorogenic acid, ploridizin and more.

Apples are filled with soluble fiber  (5 grams)

This fiber has been shown to reduce intestinal disorders, including diverticulitis, hemorrhoids and possibly some types of cancer.
Helps control insulin levels by releasing sugar slowly into the bloodstream.
Cleanses and detoxifies, which helps eliminate heavy metals, such as lead and mercury.

According to Chinese Medicine: Apples strengthen the heart, quench thirst, lubricate the lungs, decrease mucous and increase body fluids.

An Apple a Day to Keep 5 Chronic Diseases Away?

A wealth of research suggests that eating apples may impact your health in a number of beneficial ways:

Brain Health: Apples have been found to protect neuron cells against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity and may play an important role in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Stroke: Eating apples is linked to a decreased risk of stroke.

Diabetes: Three servings of apples (and other fruits, such as blueberries and grapes) is linked to a 7 percent lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

This may be due to their beneficial role in blood sugar regulation, as apples contain compounds that may:

Lessen absorption of glucose from your digestive tract
Stimulate beta cells in your pancreas to secrete insulin
Increase uptake of glucose from your blood by stimulating insulin receptors

Cancer: Apples have a number of properties that may help reduce the risk of cancer, including antimutagenic activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as "novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity." According to the journal Planta Medica.

"Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer."

Heart Disease: Eating apples is associated with a lower risk of death from heart disease, an association that's thought to be related to their content of antioxidant flavonoids.

An apple has only 50-80 calories and has no fat or sodium

Apples provide a source of potassium which may promote heart health