Thursday, September 22, 2016

How does PEP works?

PEP is recommended because it has been observed that systemic infection does not occur immediately after an exposure and there is a brief window period of opportunity  available to contain or eradicate HIV from body before wide spread cellular infection occur. After a needle-stick injury, immune cells (dendritic) in skin present the  HIV to T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. It is seen that in monkey models, Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) when injected into vagina, virus is engulfed by immune cells in the vaginal lining. Within 2 days SIV is found in inguinal lymph nodes. Within 5 days SIV infected T-cells and free SIV can be detected in blood stream  9. Migration of SIV after rectal or penile tip exposure follows a similar time frame. PEP can stop viral replication during this early period before it gains a 'foothold' in the body. 

Determination of the Exposure Code in PEP

Exposure code can be defined as per the flow chart given below. It may be classified into three categories, EC-1, EC-2 and EC-3, depending upon the severity of exposure.

Sunday, September 18, 2016

PEP Initial Evaluation

What is considered to be a potential exposure to HIV, HBV or HCV?
For transmission of blood borne pathogens (HIV, HBV and HCV) to occur, an exposure must include both of the following:
• Infectious body fluid
o Blood, semen, vaginal fluids, amniotic fluids, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid and synovial flood can transmit HIV, HBV and HCV.
• Note that saliva, vomitus, urine, feces, sweat, tears and respiratory secretions do not transmit HIV (unless visibly bloody). The risk of HBV and HCV transmission from non-bloody saliva is negligible.
• A portal of entry
(percutaneous, mucous membrane, cutaneous with non-intact skin).
If both of these factors are not present, there is no risk of transmission and further evaluation is not required.

What baseline testing should be performed after an exposure?
(If no exposure occurred or Source Person tests negative, no testing is clinically indicated. Testing may be considered for other purposes including medico legal concerns or as per institutional protocols.)
Source Person (SP):
• HIV Ab (rapid HIV Ab testing preferred if accessible)*
• HCV Ab
• HBV surface Ag
*If SP’s rapid HIV Ab test is positive, assume this is a true positive and send confirmatory testing, usually with a Western Blot test. See below*.
Exposed Person (EP):
• HIV Ab
• HCV Ab
• HBV testing: Depends on immunization status.
Note that most healthcare and public safety personnel have been vaccinated against hepatitis B. If previously vaccinated and they know they responded to the vaccination series (a positive titer is >10mIU/mL, but most do not know their titer), they are considered to have lifelong immunity and require no further testing or treatment. Similarly, if employee health records indicate they responded to the vaccination series, they are considered to be immune. For all others, see the “Exposures to HBV and HCV” section of this guide.

*Is the rapid HIV test accurate enough to decide on whether to give PEP?
Yes, the rapid HIV test is extremely sensitive and specific and can be used to determine whether to offer PEP. A positive rapid HIV test should be considered a true positive for the purposes of PEP decision-making. A negative rapid test should be considered a true negative. Investigation of whether a source might be in the “window period” is unnecessary for determining whether HIV PEP is indicated unless acute retroviral syndrome is clinically suspected.

Friday, September 16, 2016

How PEP Works

We don’t have a cure for HIV, but we do have the next best thing: Prevention. In addition to condoms, clean needles, and public education, there is a now a new tool in the fight against the spread of HIV: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) medication. Also known as the HIV morning-after pill, these drugs help to drastically reduce the risk of contracting HIV if taken soon after exposure. Here’s what you need to know to keep yourself and your loved ones safe.

PEP is an antiretroviral medicine (ART) taken after potential exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected. According to, PEP must be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV, but the sooner you start PEP, the better.

Once prescribed PEP, you will need to take it either once or twice daily for 28 days. The drugs work by helping the immune system to stop the virus from multiplying inside the body’s cells. According to Get, cells that are already infected usually die naturally within a short period of time, and without means of reproducing, the virus is unable to spread and therefore infect an individual.

Unfortunately, PEP is not 100 percent effective at preventing HIV infections. In some cases, patients do not take the drug at the prescribed dosage for the prescribed amount of time. Other times, patients are infected with a strain of HIV which the drugs cannot work against, or the initial viral exposure was too great for the drugs to be effective.

The drugs are often given to those who believe they have been exposed to HIV, either through unprotected sex, shared needles, or victims of sexual assault. In addition, the drug costs between $600 and $1,000 and is meant to be used only in emergency situations, and should not be the go-to means of protection against the virus. Those who are possibly often exposed to HIV, such as individuals with HIV-positive partners, are advised to instead take PrEP, a daily drug that works similarly to lower infection risk.

PEP can have minor non-life threatening side effects such as nausea. Those who cannot afford to pay for the drug may qualify for either reimbursement or free medication through special programs.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

What is emergency HIV treatment?

Do you think you have been exposed to HIV within the last 72 hours?

If yes, you may be able to get treatment to prevent HIV infection.

Post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is another name for emergency HIV treatment. PEP is not a cure for HIV, it is a form of HIV prevention. It is a short course of antiretroviral drugs that stops exposure to HIV from becoming a life-long infection.

Taking PEP
PEP can cause side effects such as nausea and fatigue. DO NOT stop taking PEP - talk to your healthcare professional.
PEP must be taken as soon as possible to be effective and no later than 72 hours after exposure to HIV.
PEP must be taken at the same time every day for 4 weeks.1

Can I get PEP?
Not everyone is given PEP and it is not available everywhere. A healthcare professional will advise you if they think you should take PEP. Do not assume you will be offered it.

Usually you should only take PEP if...
it has not been longer than 72 hours since exposure to HIV
you are not already living with HIV
a mucous membrance (including: eyes, mouth, vagina, rectum) has had direct contact with someone’s bodily fluid that might be infectious
an open wound has had direct conact with someone’s bodily fluid that might be infectious
the source of exposure is infected with HIV or their HIV status is unknown.

PEP and HIV testing
It’s normal to feel anxious about being infected with HIV. Don’t let being worried stop you from getting an HIV test.

If you took PEP - get tested 3 and 6 months after potential exposure.
If you didn’t take PEP - get tested 3 months after potential exposure.
PEP in pregnancy

Certain PEP drugs can be taken during pregnancy. However, some drugs should not be used for PEP if you are pregnant. Speak to a healthcare professional about your options.

PEP during breastfeeding
PEP can be taken when breastfeeding. PEP reduces the chance of passing HIV to your baby via breastfeeding. Follow the advice of your healthcare professional and national breastfeeding guidelines.

PEP after sexual assault
If you have been sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help. A healthcare professional will advise you what to do next and they may suggest taking PEP.

Assault is never your fault. You have the right to report it to your local authority if you want to.

You might also need...
Urgent treatment for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or blood borne viruses.
Emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies:
the morning after pill must be taken within 72 hours
the intrauterine device (IUD or coil) can be fitted within 5 days of unprotected sex.
Emotional support, advice and counseling

Getting the right support is important before, during and after taking PEP. It can help address any concerns or fears that you might have. Attend follow-up visits with your healthcare team regularly.

PEP must not be used as a frequent way to prevent HIV infection. Use condoms and safer sex practices to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

Where to get PEP?

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor or pharmacy immediately.

You have the right to:

enquire about PEP
refuse PEP
have confidential support and advice
stop taking PEP.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Can PEP stop HIV?

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) may stop you developing an HIV infection if you’ve been exposed to the virus. However, it doesn’t always work.
You may have been exposed to HIV if you've:
had unprotected sex (without using a condom)
had sex with someone with HIV and the condom broke
been injured with an HIV-infected needle

What is PEP?
PEP is a course of anti-HIV medication. You must start the treatment as soon as possible after you’ve been exposed to HIV, ideally within a few hours. The medicines must be taken every day for four weeks.
PEP is unlikely to work if it’s started after 72 hours (three days) and it won’t usually be prescribed after this time.
PEP makes infection with HIV less likely. However, it’s not a cure for HIV and it doesn’t work in all cases. Some strains of HIV aren't affected by the medicines.
Also, the treatment may not work if you:
take the medicines incorrectly
don't start taking the medicines soon enough

What are the side effects of PEP?
PEP can have severe side effects, such as:
prolonged headaches
If you’re already HIV-positive, but don’t know it, you could develop drug resistance to PEP if you don’t take your doses properly. This could limit your treatment options in the future.

Where can I get PEP?
PEP is only available on prescription. You can get PEP from:
a sexual health or genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic
an A&E department of a hospital
However, PEP may not be available in all areas of England. GPs can't usually prescribe PEP.
Find your nearest GUM clinic
Find your nearest A&E department
When you request to have PEP, you’ll be asked some questions, such as:
who you had sex with, to assess your risk of exposure to HIV
whether you had oral, vaginal or anal sex
whether the other person definitely had HIV – and if known, what was their "viral load"

PEP and HIV tests
You’ll be asked to take an HIV test before starting PEP treatment, to check whether you already have HIV. If you don’t agree to an HIV test, you won't be given PEP.
You’ll also need an HIV test after the treatment, to check that it’s been successful.

Safe sex
HIV can’t be cured. Don't rely on PEP to prevent HIV, because it doesn’t always work.
Using a condom is the best way to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Ways to Ease your Hangover

The chirping birds sound like nuclear-powered crows cawing through loudspeakers, and all that blond daylight streaming through the window has an acidic effect on your eyes. You are - lamentably, maybe corruptly, avoidably, but quite certainly - hung over. And the biggest question is: What can you do about it?

Now all is not lost, because if you are all geared up for hangover, you sure can reduce its effects too. And as our granny’s would say- is the dad of stopping all evils.
Here are some tricks which will help you sail through the day after as painlessly as probable.
Never drink on an empty stomach.
Drink but do munch along.
Darlings, do not act macho. Prove your ego elsewhere!
 Mixing is a big no-no. Spare that poor liver of yours!
If you are drinking 2 parts of alcohol, sip at least 1 part of water along.

Cold Water

The swift splash of cold water, will give you much needed push. This rush provokes the quick production of adrenaline in the body. As a result, the adrenaline elevates your easiness for the hangover’s effects. The headache and the profound sensation will steadily reduce. Depending on your luck, it may suddenly vanish even!
Water, milk, juice- Drink it all!

Drinking, which weakens your body and makes you feel weighty, is one of the terrible after-effects of binging on drinks. So to avoid dehydration just gulp tons of water and let it all be flushed. However, make sure you are not found near coffee in any case as it further aggravates the headache and dehydrate you.

Sleep Over Your Drinks Rage

Even after taking proper medication, you still don’t feel all right; then the super excellent solution to deal with it- is just to sleep on it. Despite the fact that, the main worry is, how do you put yourself to slumber with a bad migraine?

Soothing music – Let your mood be influenced to make you the king of la la land. Play soft jazz or blues, even though urbane, these songs induce a sleepy feel, which assists you in your cause to recuperate from a hangover.

Puke the inside turmoil out - Puking is pretty rough but it is the lesser of two ills when compared to an awful hangover. While we're on the subject, it is also an useful hangover remedy. After puking, you will feel much relaxed, as all the toxins will be washed out of your system. Force it or let it come out with its own flow, just do it, we say!

Scalp Massage – Tel maalish is one just going one step closer to heaven. Try it and you’ll be left asking for more.

Bedtime Story - This option may look childlike, but it is really valuable. As the tale jogs, your ears get familiarized to it. And soon you’ll be waving to your dreamland.

Never drink on an empty stomach.
Drink but do munch along.
The swift splash of cold water, will give you much needed push.
Puke the inside turmoil out.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Health Benefits Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet fruit. Grapefruit is a hybrid originating in Barbados as an accidental cross between two introduced species, sweet orange  and pomelo or shaddock , both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century. When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit"; and it has also been misidentified with the pomelo.A nutritious member of the citrus family, grapefruits are large, tart and tangy fruits known primarily for their vitamin C content. The fruit, often mistaken for a pomelo, can be found with either white, pink, or red pulps – all with different levels of sweetness while offering very similar benefits. The best part? While grapefruits are normally in season from winter through early spring, you can experience the health benefits of grapefruit all year round.

The evergreen grapefruit trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters (16–20 ft) tall, although they can reach 13–15 m (43–49 ft). The leaves are glossy dark green, long (up to 15 centimeters (5.9 in)) and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and generally an oblate spheroid in shape; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in). The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness (generally, the redder varieties are sweeter). The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.

Colors and flavors
Grapefruit comes in many varieties. One way to differentiate between varieties is by the flesh color of fruit they produce. The most popular varieties cultivated today are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat sour to sweet and tart. Grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.

Nutritional properties
Grapefruit is a rich source (>20% of the Daily Value, DV in a 100 gram serving) of vitamin C, contains the fiber pectin, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene. Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol, and there is evidence that the seeds have antioxidant properties. Grapefruit forms a core part of the "grapefruit diet", the theory being that the fruit's low glycemic index is able to help the body's metabolism burn fat.

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to have strong antimicrobial properties against fungi. It is also believed to have antimicrobial properties for bacteria; however, there are no known studies that demonstrate its efficacy. Additionally, although GSE is promoted as a highly effective plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies have shown that the apparent antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives.

There is a popular myth that grapefruits contain high amounts of spermidine, a simple polyamine that may be related to aging. The myth probably relies on the confusion between spermidine and putrescine. While citrus fruits show high amounts of putrescine, they contain very little spermidine.

Health Benefits of Grapefruit

Seeing as grapefruits are rich in essential vitamins and minerals, there is no doubt that the fruit can provide numerous health benefits. Below you will learn about at least 10 grapefruit health benefits that you can share with your friends and family.

High level of Antioxidants
Grapefruit contains a high concentration of Vitamin C as it’s a citrus fruit. Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant.It helps in preventing and provides protection against the cold and flu. It does so by strengthening the immune system.It’s not Vitamin C alone that ensures the strengthening of the immune system; Vitamin C combines with other nutrients and vitamins to optimize the immune function. The high amount of antioxidants in grapefruit fight the damage caused by free radicals and oxidative stress. Thus, it protects from skin cancer and gives a youthful appearance to the skin by stunting the aging process.Also, grapefruit nourishes skin to protect from many skin disease

An Incredible Lift to the Immune System
Copious amounts of vitamin C helps prevent or fight the common cold. There are some indicators that vitamin C may also protect against cancers of the mouth and stomach. Grapefruit also combat free radicals that can reek havoc in the body. Cancer, stroke, and heart attack may all related to unchecked free radicals.

Liver Cleansing, Detoxifcation 
Grapefruit contains numerous liver-cleansing agents. Among them are vitamin C, various antioxidants, and phytonutrients called limonoids that helps toxic compounds to excrete from the liver by making them more water soluble. The fruit also contains a flavonoid compound known as naringenin, as mentioned earlier, which causes the liver to burn fat rather than store it.

Protect from Inflammation
Grapefruit is a rich source of antioxidants like Vitamin C that protects from inflammation.Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of collagen that repairs and heals blood vessels, tendons, joints, and bones.This way it protects from inflammation and pain caused due to the severity of inflammatory conditions. Its function makes it a valuable aid in the treatment of osteoporosis and arthritis.It controls the severity and degeneration of bones which is a characteristic of arthritis.

Natural Fat Burner
Grapefruit that burns fat is not a simple rumor or fad. Scientific research reveals the amazing power of this wonderful breakfast or anytime fruit. Simply enjoy a glass of grapefruit juice or half of a grapefruit before each meal to reap the benefits. Those who participated in the experiment lost up to four pounds in twelve weeks.

Helps Treat Gum Disease
According to a study published in the British Dental Journal, consuming 2 grapefruits each day for two weeks results in significantly less bleeding of the gums. Grapefruits were shown to drastically increase plasma vitamin C levels and help manage periodontal disease.

Reduces Cholesterol
LDL or Low-Density Lipoprotein is termed as bad cholesterol whereas HDL, the High-Density Lipoprotein is considered good cholesterol.Though grapefruit has no cholesterol in its composition, compounds present in grapefruit helps in the reduction of LDL cholesterol and increase the levels of HDL cholesterol.Studies have conclusively shown that Red grapefruit followed by white grapefruit are very useful in improving the cholesterol levels and balance in the body.But this is not an overnight process. It shows results only when regularly consumed over a long period

Promoting a Healthy Pregnancy
Rich in folate and vitamin C, grapefruits can be great for promoting a healthy pregnancy. Vitamin C works to promote proper bone growth, bone development tissue repair, and helps to maintain cell strength in the womb. Folate, an extremely important B vitamin for pregnant mothers, helps prevent birth defects like spina bifida and helps the baby to grow sufficiently.

Lowers your Risk of Diabetes
Diabetes is a lifestyle disease increasingly becoming common in the middle-aged population.Nowadays even children are falling prey to the condition called Juvenile diabetes or type I diabetes.Type I diabetes occurs in newborn infants or younger children and requires massive external insulin supplementation.Type II diabetes occurs more often in people who are much older. It begins at the age of about forty years and can be controlled by maintaining healthy active lifestyle and managing diabetes-friendly diet.Diabetics  cannot eat a majority of fruits because of their high sugar content. The good news is that they can safely eat grapefruit and, in fact, increased consumption helps to reduce and burn the starch and sugar content in the body. Even if you are not diagnosed with diabetes, but have a family history that makes you vulnerable to it, then you should include grapefruit in your diet.

Health Benefits of Mosambi Sweet lime Citrus limetta

Citrus limetta, alternatively considered to be a cultivar of Citrus limon, is a species of citrus, commonly known as sweet lime, sweet lemon, and sweet limetta.

It is native to South- and Southeast Asia and cultivated in the Mediterranean Basin.

In Iran it is called Limu Shirin 
In North India, it is commonly called mousambi, mosambi, or musambi .
In South India, it is called Moosambi in Kannada and Malayalam, Bathaya Kaayalu Cheeni Kaayaluin Telugu, and sathukudi in Tamil.
In Nepali, it is called Mausam.
In Sindh it is known as mosami.
In France it is sometimes called bergamot; it should not be confused with Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange.
It is a different fruit from the Palestinian sweet lime and from familiar sour limes such as the Key lime and the Persian lime.

Sweet lime is almost exclusively served as juice, and is the most common available citrus juice in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The juice is commonly sold at mobile road stalls, where it is freshly pressed, sometimes served with a salty chat masala or kala namak, unless the vendor is told not to add it.

Like most citrus, the fruit is rich in vitamin C, providing 50 mg per 100 g serving. In Iran it is used to treat influenza and common cold.

The tree is used for ornamental purposes as well as for graft stock.

Mosambi or Sweet lime is also known as the mousambi, musambi (in North India), Moosambi (in South India), Mishta nimbuka (in Sanskrit), Meeta nimbuka (in Hindi), sweet lemon (in Persian) and sweet limetta. It is a citrus fruit (belongs to the Citrus family) which was first originated in the regions of Mediterranean Southeast Asia.

Health Benefits Of Mosambi:

Mosambi is a versatile fruit with a sweet and sour taste. This amazing fruit renders terrific nutritional value. This fruit is widely consumed in the form of drinks, jams, pickles, candies, snacks and sorbets. The juice of this fruit is also versatile and is used in salads and to marinate meat. Some of the health benefits of mosambi are given below.

Sweet lime or Mosambi juice is very famous juice all through the India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and can be found in almost every season (however, sufficiently available in July, August and November, March.) at road side shops and fruit mandi. People generally like drinking its juice during summer season by adding some salty chat masala, kala namak and etc.

Benefits of Mosambi for Digestive System

Stimulates Digestive System Functioning
Mosambi has a high content of flavonoids that stimulate the digestive system by increasing the secretion of digestive juices, acids and bile. Hence, mosambi juice is often recommended to people suffering from indigestion, irregular bowel movement and other gastrointestinal problems. Thus, it aids digestion by neutralizing the acidic digestive juices produced by the stomach and flushes out the toxins from the excretory system. The compounds found in this fruit are beneficial for peristaltic motion. Sweet lime also helps in controlling diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

Cures Digestive System Disorders
Mosambi helps in curing some common digestive system disorders like nausea, indigestion, irregular bowel movements and etc.
Boosts Digestion Process
It boosts up the digestion process as it helps in neutralizing the extra acids produced by stomach as well as flushes out body toxins through excretory system.
It keeps peristaltic motion healthy and helps in controlling nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Relieves Constipation
Sweet lime makes bowel tract smooth and provides relief from the constipation as it is contains good level of dietary fibers which acts as roughage (purgative property) and makes stool soft and easy passage.
Promotes Healing of Ulcers
Flavonoids found in it called Limomin Glucoside has anti carcinogenic, antioxidant and antibiotic properties thus helps in healing internal wounds called ulcers (oral and peptic).

Benefits of Mosambi in Scurvy Disease

Treats Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin C. This disease is characterized by bleeding, swollen gums, frequent bouts of flu and cold, ulcers in the mouth and tongue, and cracked lip corners. The sweet limes can stop the bleeding of gums. Mix mosambi juice with a few drops of pure water and add a pinch of black salt to the mixture. This mixture should be applied to the affected gums for an immediate relief from bleeding gums. Halitosis (bad breath) can be eliminated by sipping lime juice and sucking on lime rinds.
Fulfills Need of Vitamin C
Regular intake of mosambi (whole or juice) helps in reducing all the symptoms of scurvy disease by fulfilling the level of required vitamin C in the body.
Controls Bleeding Gums
Sweet lime makes gums stronger than before and helps in controlling bleeding from gums and bad breath problem.

Benefits of Mosambi Juice/Sweet Lime Juice

Energizes Body
Regular intake of mosambi juice helps in relieving fatigue and weakness due to motion sickness.
Relieves Heart Burn and Acidity
Drinking a glass of mosambi juice on daily basis helps in relieving from heartburn and acidity.
Prevents from Sunstroke and Dehydration
It has ability to prevent from the sunstroke and dehydration during summer season as it contains lots of water, essential vitamins, electrolytes and minerals.
Reduces Muscle Cramps
It is highly preferred by the sport persons and athletes after their hard work out sessions as it fulfills the water level and reduces muscle cramps.
Maintains Blood Sugar Level
Sweet lime juice is very beneficial for the diabetic patients if the mixture of mosambi juice, amla juice and honey is taken with empty stomach in the early morning.
Prevents from Eye Disorders
Its antioxidant and anti-bacterial nature provides eye protection from various infections like conjunctivitis and age related muscular degeneration.

Improves The Immune System:
The regular consumption of mosambi juice brings about an improvement in the overall heart functioning. Thus, it ensures proper blood circulation and contributes to a much healthier immune system. Vitamin C boosts the immunity levels and prevents cold.

Benefits of Mosambi Juice in Pregnancy
Promotes Better Growth of Fetus
Sweet lime juice is good source of potassium, calcium and vitamin C which are necessarily required by the growing fetus for the proper growth and development.
Promotes Functioning of Brain and Nervous System
Its cooling property keeps brain and nervous system functions smooth thus prevents from brain fever and mental issues during pregnancy to both mother and baby.
Boosts Blood Circulation
Mosambi juice has high level of vitamin C which boosts the blood circulation all through the body thus keeps both mother and baby healthy.
Benefits of Mosambi Juice in jaundice

Regularizes Liver Functioning
Mosambi juice is considered that it reduces the symptoms of jaundice by regularizing the liver functioning and controlling bile secretion in the body thus highly preferred by the doctor for the people suffering from jaundice.

Cures Respiratory Problems
It helps in curing asthma and other respiratory problems if mosambi juice is taken by mixing some cumin seeds and dry ginger powder.

Prevents from Infection
Sweet lime provides relief during tonsillitis and its painful symptoms as it is rich in vitamin C which reduces infections of cold, cough and fever as well as soothes irritating, dry, itchy and sore throat.

Benefits of Sweet lime Juice for men
Strengthens Body and Improves Sperm Count
Regular consumption of mosambi juice enhances appetite level, purifies blood as well as raises the sperm quality and count among men.

Benefits of Citrus limetta Juice for Hair
Its antiseptic and antibacterial properties add lots of benefits towards beauty therapies which are mentioned below:
Strengthens Hair
It helps in strengthening hair because of its richness in vitamins and minerals.
Treats Hair Loss
Mosambi juice helps in treating split hair ends and dandruff problem.
Promotes Hair Growth
It makes hair bright, shiny, long, natural black and strong as it provides all the required nutrients for the hair growth and maintenance.
Provides Natural Color to Hair
It is rich source of copper mineral which involve in the formation of pigment melanin thus provides natural color to the hair.

Benefits of Citrus limetta Juice for Skin
Provides Wonderful Skin
Drinking mosambi juice regularly is very good for getting wonderful skin as it contains high vitamin C level (used in manufacturing various skincare products and medicinal supplements in order to treat dry, rough skin, improving skin tone, speeding up healing and so many.
Removes Dark Pigmentation and Spots
It has mild bleaching and cleansing property and helps to get rid of dark pigmentation, spots, acne, pimples, blemishes and etc.
Lightens Skin Tone
It provides glowing, radiant and smooth skin by reducing the scars of insect bite and lightening the skin tone if consumed regularly.
Detoxify Body
Sweet lime juice helps in detoxifying the body which provides natural glow and shine to the skin.
Cures Dark and Cracked Lips
It helps in lightening the dark skin on lips as well as curing cracked lips.

Other Health Benefits of Sweet lime
Used to Prepare Various Medicines
Oil extracts from mosambi is used in manufacturing various medicines (balms, inhalers, vaporizers and etc) treating respiratory problems because of its anti-congestive property.
Prevents from Infection
Its richness of vitamin C helps in boosting immunity level which ultimately helps body to stay at bay from various infections and disorders like heart disorders, improper blood circulation, cold, flu and etc.
Prevents from Bone Problems
Sweet lime provides protection against rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, inflammations and swellings thus good to maintain the health of bones.
Regularizes BP and Cholesterol Level
It helps in maintaining normal cholesterol level, blood pressure and weight loss if a glass of little warm water is taken with mosambi juice and honey.
Removes Body Toxins
It contains high level of potassium electrolyte which manages proper blood flow all over the body thus detoxifies kidneys, liver and bladder by removing toxins which ultimately reduces occurrence of infections and urinary disorders.
Prevents Accumulation of Uric Acid
Its antioxidant nature prevents accumulation of uric acid and bad effects of free radicals in the body by flushing out all the unnecessary uric acids and neutralizing free radicals.
Nutritional Benefits of Mosambi/Sweet Lime per 100 g

Energy: 43 kcal
Carbohydrate: 9.3 g
Water: 88 g
Sugar: 1.7 g
Dietary fibers: 0.5 g
Fat: 0.3 g
Protein: 0.7-0.8 g
Vitamin C: 50 mg
Vitamin A: 20 IU
Calcium: 40 mg
Iron: 0.7 mg
Phosphorus: 30 mg
Potassium: 490 mg

Friday, April 29, 2016

Physical Changes To Your Body by HIV

As HIV disease progresses in your body, you may notice physical changes. Some changes may occur as side-effects of medical treatment for HIV. Others may occur as a result of the impact that HIV (or AIDS) has on your body.

Some medications you may take to control HIV cause changes in the way your body produces, uses, and stores fat. These changes are called lipodystrophy. This condition causes you to gain or lose fat in particular parts of your body.

You can get extra fat in the following places:

Breasts (both men and women)

In addition, you can also develop small deposits of fat, called lipomas, elsewhere on your body.
Other changes can occur when the fat under your skin (called subcutaneous fat) is lost. This can occur in your:


It is important to note that these changes in the way your body handles fat can also coincide with changes in cholesterol, an increase in triglycerides, increases in blood sugar, and lowered sensitivity to insulin, which may lead to diabetes.

Wasting syndrome is the involuntary loss of more than 10% of your body weight, in addition to more than 30 days of either diarrhea or weakness and fever. Wasting refers to a loss of muscle mass, although part of the weight loss may also be due to loss of fat. HIV-associated wasting syndrome is considered an AIDS-defining condition.

While this is often a sign of late stage disease, wasting syndrome can be treated by:
Proper diet
Medications to stimulate appetite
Medications to control diarrhea
Hormonal therapy to build muscle

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Health Benefits of Apple

The apple tree is a deciduous tree in the rose family best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit, the apple. It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.

Apple trees are large if grown from seed, but small if grafted onto roots (rootstock). There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

About 80 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2013, and China produced almost half of this total.The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects are thought to result from eating apples; however, two types of allergies are attributed to various proteins found in the fruit.

Health Benefits of Apple

Apples are the second most popular fruit in the US (bananas are the first),1 with each American eating about 19 pounds a year. 

Undoubtedly, many of those apples are consumed right now, during the fall, which is peak season for apples in the US. This is one sweet treat that you can feel good about eating, too, as apples are packed with disease-fighting vitamins, antioxidants and more, easily making them one of the top-ranked fruits for your health

Apples Ranked Second Highest for Antioxidant Activity

Compared to other commonly consumed fruits in the US, apples ranked second for highest antioxidant activity. However, they ranked highest for the proportion of free phenolic compounds, which means they are not bound to other compounds in the fruit and therefore may be more easily absorbed into your bloodstream.

Notably, much of apples' antioxidant power is contained in the peel, where you'll find antioxidants like catechin, procyanidins, chlorogenic acid, ploridizin and more.

Apples are filled with soluble fiber  (5 grams)

This fiber has been shown to reduce intestinal disorders, including diverticulitis, hemorrhoids and possibly some types of cancer.
Helps control insulin levels by releasing sugar slowly into the bloodstream.
Cleanses and detoxifies, which helps eliminate heavy metals, such as lead and mercury.

According to Chinese Medicine: Apples strengthen the heart, quench thirst, lubricate the lungs, decrease mucous and increase body fluids.

An Apple a Day to Keep 5 Chronic Diseases Away?

A wealth of research suggests that eating apples may impact your health in a number of beneficial ways:

Brain Health: Apples have been found to protect neuron cells against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity and may play an important role in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Stroke: Eating apples is linked to a decreased risk of stroke.

Diabetes: Three servings of apples (and other fruits, such as blueberries and grapes) is linked to a 7 percent lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

This may be due to their beneficial role in blood sugar regulation, as apples contain compounds that may:

Lessen absorption of glucose from your digestive tract
Stimulate beta cells in your pancreas to secrete insulin
Increase uptake of glucose from your blood by stimulating insulin receptors

Cancer: Apples have a number of properties that may help reduce the risk of cancer, including antimutagenic activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as "novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity." According to the journal Planta Medica.

"Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer."

Heart Disease: Eating apples is associated with a lower risk of death from heart disease, an association that's thought to be related to their content of antioxidant flavonoids.

An apple has only 50-80 calories and has no fat or sodium

Apples provide a source of potassium which may promote heart health

What Hiv Does In Your Body

Without treatment, HIV advances in stages, overwhelming your immune system and getting worse over time. The three stages of HIV infection are: (1) acute HIV infection, (2) clinical latency, and (3) AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

However, there’s good news: by using HIV medicines (called antiretroviral therapy or ART) consistently, you can prevent HIV from progressing to AIDS. ART helps control the virus so that you can live a longer, healthier life and reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to others.
These are the three stages of HIV infection:

Within 2-4 weeks after HIV infection, many, but not all, people develop flu-like symptoms, often described as “the worst flu ever.” Symptoms can include fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, muscle and joint aches and pains, and headache. This is called “acute retroviral syndrome” (ARS) or “primary HIV infection,” and it’s the body’s natural response to the HIV infection.

During this early period of infection, large amounts of virus are being produced in your body. The virus uses CD4 count to replicate and destroys them in the process. Because of this, your CD4 cells can fall rapidly. Eventually your immune response will begin to bring the level of virus in your body back down to a level called a viral set point, which is a relatively stable level of virus in your body. At this point, your CD4 count begins to increase, but it may not return to pre-infection levels. It may be particularly beneficial to your health to begin ART during this stage.

During the acute HIV infection stage, you are at high risk of transmitting HIV to your sexual or drug using partners because the levels of HIV in your blood stream are very high. For this reason, it is very important to take steps to reduce your risk of transmission.

After the acute stage of HIV infection, the disease moves into a stage called the “clinical latency” stage. “Latency” means a period where a virus is living or developing in a person without producing symptoms. During the clinical latency stage, people who are infected with HIV experience no symptoms, or only mild ones. (This stage is sometimes called “asymptomatic HIV infection” or “chronic HIV infection.”)

During the clinical latency stage, the HIV virus continues to reproduce at very low levels, although it is still active. If you take ART, you may live with clinical latency for several decades because treatment helps keep the virus in check. (Read more about HIV treatment.) For people who are not on ART, the clinical latency stage lasts an average of 10 years, but some people may progress through this stage faster.

People in this symptom-free stage are still able to transmit HIV to others, even if they are on ART, although ART greatly reduces the risk of transmission.
If you have HIV and you are not on ART, then eventually your viral load will begin to rise and your CD4 count will begin to decline. As this happens, you may begin to have constitutional symptoms of HIV as the virus levels increase in your body.

This is the stage of HIV infection that occurs when your immune system is badly damaged and you become vulnerable to opportunistic infections. When the number of your CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3), you are considered to have progressed to AIDS. (In someone with a healthy immune system, CD4 counts are between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.) You are also considered to have progressed to AIDS if you develop one or more opportunistic illnesses, regardless of your CD4 count.

Without treatment, people who progress to AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Once you have a dangerous opportunistic illness, life-expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year. However, if you are taking ART and maintain a low viral load, then you may enjoy a near normal life span. You will most likely never progress to AIDS. 

People living with HIV may progress through these stages at different rates, depending on a variety of factors, including their genetic makeup, how healthy they were before they were infected, how soon after infection they are diagnosed and linked to care and treatment, whether they see their healthcare provider regularly and take their HIV medications as directed, and different health-related choices they make, such as decisions to eat a healthful diet, exercise, and not smoke.

Time Between HIV Infection and AIDS

Factors that may shorten the time between HIV and AIDS:

Older age
HIV subtype
Co-infection with other viruses (like tuberculosis or hepatitis C)
Poor nutrition
Severe stress
Your genetic background

Factors that may delay the time between HIV and AIDS:

Taking antiretroviral therapy consistently
Staying in regular HIV care
Closely adhering to your doctor’s recommendations
Eating healthful foods
Taking care of yourself
Your genetic background
By making healthy choices, you have some control over the progression of HIV infection.

Not everyone is diagnosed early. Some people are diagnosed with HIV and AIDS concurrently, meaning that they have been living with HIV for a long time and the virus has already done damage to their body by the time they find out they are infected. These individuals need to seek a healthcare provider immediately and be linked to care so that they can stay as healthy as possible, as long as possible. Use the HIV Testing and Services Locator to find an HIV provider near you.

Sunday, April 17, 2016

What Does HIV Positive Mean?

Being diagnosed as "HIV-positive" means that you have been exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)and that two HIV tests—a preliminary enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test and a confirmatory Western blot test—have both come back positive for antibodies to HIV.

Being HIV-positive means that it is possible for you to pass the virus along to others, including your sexual partners. If you are female, you could also pass it along to your unborn child.

Once you have been infected with HIV, you will always carry it in your body. There is no cure for HIV. It is a serious, infectious disease that can lead to death if it isn't treated.

But many scientific and technological advances have made HIV a chronic manageable disease. Many people with HIV lead healthy, happy, and productive lives and learn how to cope with the disease.

This is why it is so important to know your HIV status. Knowing that you are HIV-positive gives you the ability to protect your own health and the health of your partners and children.

Being HIV-positive does NOT mean you have AIDS. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV disease. Proper treatment can keep you from developing AIDS.

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Where Did HIV Come From

There are a few different ideas that have been put forward to explain how HIV came about. The two thrown around most, by far, are: “The government did it,” or “It was definitely people having sex with monkeys!”

There are lots of conspiracy theories surrounding HIV; some people do not believe it causes AIDS at all, and others believe that HIV is a man-made virus.

HIV-1 from chimpanzees and gorillas to humans
Scientists generally accept that the known strains (or groups) of HIV-1 are most closely related to the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) endemic in wild ape populations of West Central African forests. Particularly, each of the known HIV-1 strains is either closely related to the SIV that infects the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes (SIVcpz) or closely related to the SIV that infects western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), called SIVgor. The pandemic HIV-1 strain (group M or Main) and a very rare strain only found in a few Cameroonian people (group N) are clearly derived from SIVcpz strains endemic in Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee populations living in Cameroon. Another very rare HIV-1 strain (group P) is clearly derived from SIVgor strains of Cameroon. Finally, the primate ancestor of HIV-1 group O, a strain infecting 100,000 people mostly from Cameroon but also from neighboring countries, has been recently confirmed to be SIVgor.[6] The pandemic HIV-1 group M is most closely related to the SIVcpz collected from the southeastern rain forests of Cameroon (modern East Province) near the Sangha River. Thus, this region is presumably where the virus was first transmitted from chimpanzees to humans. However, reviews of the epidemiological evidence of early HIV-1 infection in stored blood samples, and of old cases of AIDS in Central Africa have led many scientists to believe that HIV-1 group M early human center was probably not in Cameroon, but rather farther south in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, more probably in its capital city, Kinshasa (formerly LĂ©opoldville).

Using HIV-1 sequences preserved in human biological samples along with estimates of viral mutation rates, scientists calculate that the jump from chimpanzee to human probably happened during the late 19th or early 20th century, a time of rapid urbanisation and colonisation in equatorial Africa. Exactly when the zoonosis occurred is not known. Some molecular dating studies suggest that HIV-1 group M had its most recent common ancestor (MRCA) (that is, started to spread in the human population) in the early 20th century, probably between 1915 and 1941. A study published in 2008, analyzing viral sequences recovered from a recently discovered biopsy made in Kinshasa, in 1960, along with previously known sequences, suggested a common ancestor between 1873 and 1933 (with central estimates varying between 1902 and 1921). Genetic recombination had earlier been thought to "seriously confound" such phylogenetic analysis, but later "work has suggested that recombination is not likely to systematically bias", although recombination is "expected to increase variance".The results of a 2008 phylogenetics study support the later work and indicate that HIV evolves "fairly reliably". Further research was hindered due to the primates being critically endangered. Sample analyses resulted in little data due to the rarity of experimental material. The researchers, however, were able to hypothesize a phylogeny from the gathered data. They were also able to use the molecular clock of a specific strain of HIV to determine the initial date of transmission, which is estimated to be around 1915-1931.

HIV-2 from sooty mangabeys to humans
Similar research has been undertaken with SIV strains collected from several wild sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys atys) (SIVsmm) populations of the West African nations of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ivory Coast. The resulting phylogenetic analyses show that the viruses most closely related to the two strains of HIV-2 that spread considerably in humans (HIV-2 groups A and B) are the SIVsmm found in the sooty mangabeys of the Tai forest, in western Ivory Coast.

There are six additional known HIV-2 groups, each having been found in just one person. They all seem to derive from independent transmissions from sooty mangabeys to humans. Groups C and D have been found in two people from Liberia, groups E and F have been discovered in two people from Sierra Leone, and groups G and H have been detected in two people from the Ivory Coast. These HIV-2 strains are probably dead-end infections, and each of them is most closely related to SIVsmm strains from sooty mangabeys living in the same country where the human infection was found.

Molecular dating studies suggest that both the epidemic groups (A and B) started to spread among humans between 1905 and 1961 (with the central estimates varying between 1932 and 1945).

Monday, April 11, 2016

HIV AIDS Treatments Prevention Management

Yes, today HIV is a manageable disease. HIV medications have significantly changed the course of HIV infection since the early days of the epidemic and with the proper care and treatment, you can live a healthy life.

The sooner you take steps to protect your health, the better. Early treatment with antiretroviral drugs and a healthy lifestyle can help you stay well. Prompt medical care prevents the onset of AIDS and some life-threatening AIDS-related conditions.

To view the personal stories of others who have been diagnosed with HIV and learn how they managed their infection and got the virus under control with medication, visit’s Positive Spin.

The most significant change that has taken place in HIV prevention and in the thinking and strategies of many public health workers and prevention advocates since the last edition of Preventing HIV is a much greater emphasis on the role of HIV treatment as a method of HIV prevention. A few advocates feel that we may not even need new treatments (like vaccines) and new approaches (like pre-exposure prophylaxis) to significantly reduce HIV transmission, but may simply need to step up what we are already doing, namely treating people who have HIV. This is a minority view, but, encouraged by new evidence of the efficacy of HIV treatment as prevention, many experts and advocates now believe that the provision of ARVs may be one of the most important elements of any strategy to end the HIV epidemic. At the very least it provides another powerful reason to expand access to treatment.

While AIDS remains incurable, patients are living much longer – even decades after infection – because of the development of many effective medications to suppress the virus. The most effective type are known as antiretroviral drugs, which are often taken in combination to prevent the patient from becoming resistant to any one drug.

According to the National Institutes of Health, the most common antiretroviral drugs fall into three categories:

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which keep the virus from reproducing
Protease inhibitors, which interfere with an HIV protein that produces infectious particles
Fusion inhibitors, which prevent the virus from entering healthy cells
Doctors verify if medications are working through blood tests, which measure levels of various infection-fighting blood cells as well as the level of HIV in the blood. Even when the virus is undetectable, AIDS is not cured and can still be transmitted to others.

Other HIV/AIDS treatment focuses around living a healthy lifestyle with optimum nutrition, sleep and exercise. Regular doctor’s visits are also scheduled, with frequency depending on viral levels in the blood and what symptoms are present, according to the American Academy of Family Physicians.


More than 56,000 Americans become infected with HIV each year, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. While some AIDS patients have been infected through blood transfusions during medical procedures, preventing infection usually depends on avoiding risky habits or behaviors that lead to exposure to the virus, which can be transmitted through blood, bodily fluids such as semen and infected needles.

Prevention measures include:

Knowing yours and your partners’ HIV status
Using latex condoms correctly during every sexual encounter, whether gay or straight
Limiting the number of sexual partners
Abstaining from injectable drug use
Seeking medical treatment immediately after suspected HIV exposure, since medications can sometimes prevent infection if started early
It’s just as important to know the ways HIV cannot be spread, such as by:

Saliva, tears or sweat
Water or air
Casual contact such as closed-mouth kissing or shaking hands
Insects, including mosquitoes

The advent in 1996 of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), sometimes called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or ART (effective combination antiretroviral therapy), changed the course of the HIV epidemic.1 These “cocktails” of three or more antiretroviral drugs used in combination gave patients and scientists new hope for fighting the epidemic,2 and have significantly improved life expectancy—to decades rather than months.1,3

For many years, scientists believed that treating HIV-infected persons also significantly reduced their risk of transmitting the infection to sexual and drug-using partners who did not have the virus. The circumstantial evidence was substantial, but no one had conducted a randomized clinical trial— the gold standard for proving an intervention works. That changed in 2011 with the publication of findings from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study, a randomized clinical trial designed in part to evaluate whether the early initiation of ART can prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among heterosexual couples in which one partner is HIV-infected and the other is not. This landmark study validated that early HIV treatment has a profound prevention benefit: results showed that the risk of transmitting HIV to an uninfected partner was reduced by 96%.4

As a concept and a strategy, treating HIV-infected persons to improve their health and to reduce the risk of onward transmission—sometimes called treatment as prevention— refers to the personal and public health benefits of using ART to continuously suppress HIV viral load in the blood and genital fluids, which decreases the risk of transmitting the virus to others. The practice has been used since the mid- 1990s to prevent mother-to-child, or perinatal, transmission of the virus. Research published in 1994 showed that zidovudine, more commonly known as AZT, when given to HIV-infected pregnant women and to their newborns reduced the risk of perinatal transmission from about 25% to 8%.5 Since then, routinely testing pregnant women and treating infected mothers with ART during pregnancy, delivery, and while breastfeeding, when practiced according to recommendations, has reduced the mother’s risk of transmitting HIV to her child by 90%.6  In one study, women who received at least 14 days of ART reduced the risk of transmitting HIV to their babies to less than 1%.

Saturday, April 9, 2016

Symptoms and diagnosis of HIV/Aids

When a person is first exposed to HIV, they may show no symptoms for several months or longer. Typically, however, they experience a flu-like illness that includes fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle aches and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and groin areas.This early illness is often followed by a “latency” phase where the virus is less active and no symptoms are present, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This latent period can last up to a decade or more.

People who become infected with HIV may not have any symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others. After you come in contact with the virus, it can take up to 3 months for a blood test to show that you have HIV.  
Symptoms related to HIV are usually due to a different infection in the body. Some symptoms related to HIV infection include:
Frequent vaginal yeast infections
Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush)
Muscle stiffness or aching
Rashes of different types, including seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis
Sore throat
Swollen lymph glands
Note: Many people have no symptoms when they are diagnosed with HIV.

Diagnosis & Tests

Since HIV/AIDS can set off so many other illnesses, it may be difficult initially to pinpoint the source. Typically, however, these illnesses appear in clusters over a short period of time, cluing patients and doctors into the presence of the virus.

According to NIAID, two types of blood tests can confirm HIV/AIDS infection:

ELISA, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which detects disease-fighting proteins called antibodies that are specific to HIV; and
Western blot, which detects antibodies that bind to specific HIV proteins
After someone is first infected it may take weeks or months for the immune system to produce enough detectable antibodies in an HIV blood test. Ironically, an infected person’s viral load may be very high during this time, making the infection exceptionally contagious.

Because of this, the CDC recommends routine HIV testing for all adolescents, adults and pregnant women, and advises that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 should be tested at least once.

Conventional HIV/AIDS tests are sent to a laboratory for analysis and may take a week or more for results. A rapid HIV test is also available that offers results in about 20 minutes, but positive results from either type of test are confirmed with a second test.

Doctors usually recommend medicine for patients who are committed to taking all their medications and have a CD4 count below 500 cells/mm3 (which is a sign that of a weakened immune system). Some people, including pregnant women and people with kidney or neurological problems related to HIV, may need treatment regardless of their CD4 count.

It is extremely important for people with HIV to take all doses of their medications, otherwise the virus may become resistant to the drugs. Therapy always involves a combination of antiviral drugs. Pregnant women with HIV infection are treated to reduce the chance of transmitting HIV to their babies.

People with HIV infection need to become educated about the disease and treatment so that they can be active participants in making decisions with their health care provider.

Friday, April 1, 2016

Common Myths About HIV and AIDS

Myth 1: I can get HIV by being around people who are HIV positive.
The evidence shows that HIV is not spread through touch, tears, sweat, or saliva. You cannot catch HIV by:
• Breathing the same air as someone who is HIV-positive
• Touching a toilet seat or doorknob handle after an HIV-positive person
• Drinking from a water fountain
• Hugging, kissing, or shaking hands with someone who is HIV-positive
• Sharing eating utensils with an HIV-positive person
• Using exercise equipment at a gym
You can get it from infected blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or mother’s milk.

Myth 2: I can get HIV from mosquitoes.
Because HIV is spread through blood, people have worried that biting or bloodsucking insects might spread HIV. Several studies, however, show no evidence to support this — even in areas with lots of mosquitoes and cases of HIV. When insects bite, they do not inject the blood of the person or animal they have last bitten. Also, HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect.

Myth 3: I’m HIV-positive, my life is over.
“With proper treatment, we now expect people with HIV to live a normal life span,” says Dr. Michael Horberg, national director of HIV/AIDS for Kaiser Permanente.

“Since 1996, with the advent of highly active, antiretroviral therapy, a person with HIV in an industrialized nation can expect to live a normal life span, so long as they take their prescribed medications,” adds Dr. Amesh A. Adalja, a board-certified infectious disease physician with the University of Pittsburgh

 Myth 4: Sex with partners from the countryside has no risk of HIV.
FALSE! Who knows exactly with whom and where their partner has had sex - and whether they used protection? And: HIV infections happen in small towns as well!

Myth 5: If I’m receiving treatment, I can’t spread the HIV virus.
When HIV treatments work well, they can reduce the amount of virus in your blood to a level so low that it doesn’t show up in blood tests. Research shows, however, that the virus is still “hiding” in other areas of the body. It is still essential to practice safe sex so you won’t make someone else become HIV-positive.

Myth 6: My partner and I are both HIV positive -there’s no reason for us to practice safe sex.
Not all strains of HIV are the same, and being infected with more than one can lead to greater complications, or a “superinfection,” according to Dr. Schochetman.
“The new HIV strain may exhibit a different drug resistance profile than the original HIV infection,” he explains. “And the new virus may show resistance to the current treatment, or cause the current treatment option to be ineffective.”

Myth 7: I could tell if my partner was HIV-positive
You can be HIV-positive and not have any symptoms for years. The only way for you or your partner to know if you’re HIV-positive is to get tested.

Myth 8: Male circumcision prevents HIV
Male circumcision does not prevent HIV infection; it only decreases the likelihood of infection. Several studies have shown that male circumcision reduces a man’s risk by up to 60%. These findings have led the government to embark on a campaign to provide free male circumcision services.
When a man has sex, the penis gets micro cuts from friction, which is generally how HIV enters a male’s body. The foreskin has millions of CD4 receptors, the type of white blood cells that HIV latches on to.

Myth 9: Traditional Medicines can cure HIV
The role of traditional healers has been controversial. This is largely due to the South African government’s promotion of traditional medicine as an alternative to ARVs, up until 2008. This included punting the untested claims and ‘cures’ of people. Traditional medicines have not been empirically proven to cure HIV, there may be herbs that reduce symptoms of HIV opportunistic infections, however to date there is no cure for HIV.

Myth 10: I can be cured from HIV if I have sex with a virgin
Sex with a virgin does not cure HIV. Sexual intercourse whether with a virgin or non-virgin is the primary manner in which HIV is spread. If will only pass the virus to the virgin who may/may not be HIV negative.

Myth 11 : I can’t get HIV from oral sex
It’s true that oral sex is less risky than some other types of sex. But you can get HIV by having oral sex with either a man or a woman who is HIV-positive. Always use a latex barrier during oral sex.

Myth 12: ARVs disfigure you
Today this rarely happens. In the past, some ARVs displaced fat in people’s bodies. One such drug, D4T, also known as Stavudine, was on the South African list for HIV treatment until early last year. It is a cheap drug that works efficiently but has many side effects, such as the loss of fat in the legs, arms and face, resulting in people’s bodies looking “unbalanced”. The state replaced it in April last year with a drug with fewer side effects, TDF.
Others, such as AZT, have also been linked to displacing fat in the body. Some drugs cause fat to show up in the stomach, the back of the neck or the breasts in both men and women. But this almost never happens today as doctors are better equipped to monitor the drugs’ side effects and have a range of replacement drugs to choose from. In extraordinary circumstances of fat displacement, the government offers free liposuction or breast removal surgery.

Myth 13: If I or my partner were HIV positive, we could not have children
HIV-infected women are fertile and can have children. If mothers and their babies use the correct medication, it’s possible for HIV-positive women to have HIV-negative babies.
Without using drugs, there is a 30% chance that HIV-infected women will pass the virus on to their babies in the womb, during birth or by breastfeeding. But if the mother and baby, or even just one of them, use short courses of ARVs, mostly nevirapine and AZT, transmission rates are reduced significantly. This treatment is available for free at government clinics and hospitals.
Mia Malan works for the Discovery Centre for Health Journalism at Rhodes University.