Monday, October 19, 2015

Quality of Semen to Accomplish Fertilization

Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man. It is the sperm in the semen that are of importance, and therefore semen quality involves both sperm quantity and quality. Decreased semen quality is a major factor of male infertility.

General Decline

There has been evidence for a general decline in sperm counts in Europe and the USA between 1938 and 1990.While these dates were critiqued, further analysis supported the findings.The reason(s) for the decline are unknown.


Semen Analysis

A semen analysis typically measures the number of sperm per milliliter of ejaculate, and analyzes the morphology (shape) and motility (ability to swim forward) of the sperm (the typical ejaculate of a healthy, physically mature young adult male of reproductive age with no fertility-related problems usually contains 300–500 million spermatozoa, though only a couple of hundred survive in the acidic environment of the vagina to be candidates for successful fertilization). Also usually measured are the concentration of white blood cells, the level of fructose in the semen, and the volume, pH, and liquefaction time of the ejaculate.

A number of factors may influence the accuracy of semen analysis results, and results for a single man may have a large amount of natural variation over time. For this reason, a subfertile result must be confirmed with at least two further analyses.

Hamster zona-free ovum test
A man's sperm are mixed with hamster eggs that have had the zona pellucida (outer membranes) removed, and the number of sperm penetrations per egg is measured.No strong correlation has been found between hamster egg penetration rates and the various semen parameters and the role of the hamster egg penetration test in the investigation of the causes of infertility should be evaluated further.However, a negative result on the hamster test correlates with a lower probability of the man's partner becoming pregnant.

Sperm chromatin assay
Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein that make up chromosomes. If a large percentage of a man's sperm (greater than 30%) have damaged chromatin, his chances of impregnating a partner are significantly reduced, and if he does impregnate his partner, she faces an increased risk of miscarriage. The portion of a man's sperm with damaged chromatin may be determined with a Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA).

Antisperm antibodies test
Presence of antisperm antibodies may be responsible for sperm agglutination, reduced sperm motility, abnormal postcoital test. Several tests are presently available including Sperm Immobilization test, Sperm Agglutination tests, Indirect immunofluorescence test, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Radiolabelled Antiglobulin Assay. One of the most informative and specific tests is Immunobead Rosette Test which can identify different antibody classes involved (IgG, IgA, IgM) and location on the sperm cell (head, body or tail).

Hemizona test
Hemizona test is a test to evaluate sperm zona-binding capacity. In this test, the two halves of human zona pellucida is incubated with patient's capacitated sperm and control fertile donor's sperm.

Other tests
PCR-based detection of the pathogens in the semen of patients with asymptomatic genital infection.
Biochemical markers like Creatine kinase, Reactive oxygen species.


When performing cryopreservation of semen, it is the sperm quality after reviving the sample that is of importance, because many sperm cells die in the process.

To be of use in assisted reproductive technology, the sample should after thawing have more than 5 million motile sperm cells per ml with a good grade of mobility. If the grade of mobility is poor, 10 million motile cells per ml is required.

Home insemination of previously frozen sperm can be accomplished with the use of a cervical cap conception device as a delivery system for the sperm.

Bad freezers
In 10–20% of all men, the semen doesn't endure cryopreservation. The cause is unknown. It does not necessarily mean an otherwise bad semen quality.

Sperm washing
When a sperm sample is prepared for intrauterine insemination, it is washed at a facility such as a fertility clinic or a sperm bank. Some sperm does not survive the washing process, as is also the case when freezing the sperm.

There are many factors that influence the sperm quality. Exposure to any of the temporary factors can cause up to a three-month delay before sperm quality returns to normal, due to spermiogenesis.

Further information: Paternal age effect
Although it is possible for men to father children into old age, the genetic quality of sperm, as well as its volume and motility, all typically decrease with age. In other words, older sperm are less likely to result in a successful pregnancy and, moreover, the cumulative fragmentation of sperm DNA over time increases the likelihood that a small fraction of men will pass on achondroplasia and transmit multiple genetic and chromosomal defects. For example, the percentage of sperm with highly damaged DNA, comet extent, DNA break number, and other comet measures has been found to be significantly higher in men aged 36–57 years than in those aged 20–35 years.Advancing paternal age has been implicated in a number of possible health effects. One particularly well-studied connection is the link between advancing age and autism. For example, one study of 943,664 children less than 10 years old, found that, with confounding variables controlled, the risk of autism increased with increasing paternal age.[19] No age related effects on sperm were noted in separate control groups recruited in different geographical locations, indicating that dietary habits, lifestyle or ethnicity could play a part in the quality of sperm.

While advanced age can be a possible factor in sperm motility and health, the sperm of men below 20 years of age has likewise been linked to an increase in birth defects such as neural tube defects, hypospadias, cystic kidney, and Down syndrome.

Prospective fathers should take up age-related fertility issues with a qualified fertility specialist such as a reproductive endocrinologist.

Masturbation vs intercourse
Semen samples obtained via sexual intercourse contain 70% more sperm, with sperm having a slightly higher motility and slightly more normal morphology, compared with semen samples obtained via masturbation. Sexual intercourse also generates a 25–45%increase in ejaculate volume, mainly by increased prostate secretion.

This intercourse advantage is even greater for men with oligospermia.

However, the single factor or factors for the intercourse advantage have not yet been isolated. It cannot be explained by presence of visual perception of physical attractiveness alone during stimulation,although there may be a slight correlation. Neither does any substantial fluctuations in sex hormones explain the intercourse advantage. It is hypothesized that sexual intercourse subdues an inhibition from the central nervous system,[23] but what, in turn, is the subduing factor is still not completely known.

Sperm are heat-sensitive, and cannot endure high temperatures. The body has compensatory mechanisms, like the cremaster muscle relaxing and letting the testicle hang further away from the warm body, sweating and a countercurrent exchange of blood cooling inflowing blood. However, despite these compensations, there are activities that should not be performed too often, in order to prevent infertility due to heat;

sauna sessions
bathing for a long time in hot water
Long-time tanning bed sessions
Placement of a laptop computer over the groin for extended use
Fever raises the body temperature, which can strike sperm quality. In the same way, sperm quality can be lower in the summer.

Contrary to widely held beliefs, no evidence supports that wearing constrictive underwear, or "briefs," decreases fertility. Even with an elevation in temperature of 0.8-1° caused by wearing constrictive underwear, no changes in sperm parameters, no decrease in spermatogenesis, and no changes in sperm function are observed 

Physical trauma
A blow from outside doesn't affect the sperm quality of already produced sperm cells. Furthermore, the testes are well protected in the scrotum, for example by the tunica vaginalis, making the testes slide away from external pressure rather than being malformed from it; however, a hard enough hit can close or crush the capillaries that supply the sperm producing tissue, resulting in permanent or temporary and partial or total inability to produce sperm in the affected testicle.

There is suspicion that many toxic substances, including several types of medication and hormones, and also constituents of the diet, influence sperm quality.While a few chemicals with known effects on fertility have been excluded from human consumption, we cannot know if others remain undiscovered. Many products that come into direct contact with spermatozoa lack adequate testing for any adverse effect on semen quality.

Endocrine disruptors
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that interfere with the endocrine (hormone) system.

A 2008 report demonstrated evidence of the effects of feminizing chemicals on male development in each class of vertebrate species as a worldwide phenomenon; these chemical are suspected of reducing the sex ratio and sperm counts in humans. Ninety-nine percent of over 100,000 recently introduced chemicals are poorly regulated.

At least three types of synthetic toxins have been found in the semen of student volunteers: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and hexachlorobenzene. DDT and hexachlorobenzene are associated with decreased semen quality, while PCBs are associated with decreased fertility overall. Leaks of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) have caused sterility in men. Soldiers that were exposed to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds during the Vietnam war have given rise to children with an increased rate of birth defects.

Phthalates, a ubiquitous pollutant, may cause decreased sperm production when having been exposed to it during prenatal development.

Other potential xenoestrogens that have been associated with decreased sperm quality in some studies are bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol.

You May Also Like

India has the third highest number of people living with HIV

Infertility in males

Information about Sex-therapy

No comments: